Margiana


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Margiana:

see MervMerv
, ancient city, in Turkmenistan, in a large oasis of the Kara Kum desert, on the Murgab River. The city, known in antiquity as Margiana, or Antiochia Margiana, was founded in the 3d cent. B.C. on the site of an earlier settlement. Its periods of greatness were from A.D.
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Margiana

 

(Greek, Margiane; Old Persian, Margush), the name of an ancient region in Middle Asia, along the Murgab (Murghab) River, in present-day southeastern Turkmen SSR and northern Afghanistan. It was first mentioned in the Avesta and the Behistun inscription. Margiana bordered Parthia on the west, Sogdi on the northeast, Bactria on the east, and Arii on the south. Its capital was in the area of ancient Merv. In 522 B.C., the people of Margiana rebelled against Achaemenid rule, but their rebellion was suppressed by King Darius I (521 B.C.). Margiana later was seized by Alexander the Great, the Seleucid state, and the Parthian kingdom. During the Middle Ages the territory became part of Khurasan.

In the first third of the first millennium B.C., urban-type settlements appeared in Margiana (Yaz-depe). Circa 500 B.C. the cities were surrounded by fortress walls (for example, the city of Merv). In the third century B.C. Hellenistic elements appeared in the art of Margiana. At the height of the region’s development, from the second century B.C. to the third century A.D., its cities and forts were built on a grid plan. Many of the buildings had serpentine walls (for example, at Chilburdzh). Residential buildings generally consisted of several living units with one court (Dzhin-depe). Terra-cotta statuettes were common, and ossuaries in the form of architectural structures were encountered. Toward the third century A.D., Buddhist architecture and sculpture appeared in the region. The artistic tradition of Margiana was developed further in the art of Merv.

REFERENCE

Pugachenkova, G. A. Iskusstvo Turkmenistana. Moscow, 1967.
References in classic literature ?
In mail their horses clad, yet fleet and strong, Prauncing their riders bore, the flower and choice Of many provinces from bound to bound-- From Arachosia, from Candaor east, And Margiana, to the Hyrcanian cliffs Of Caucasus, and dark Iberian dales; From Atropatia, and the neighbouring plains Of Adiabene, Media, and the south Of Susiana, to Balsara's haven.
Assyrian artifacts were found in sites of the so-called Bactria Margiana Archaeological Complex, (125) suggesting the presence of Assyrian traders in an area north and east of the Caspian Sea inhabited at that time by the ancestors of the Indo-Iranians.
Around 2,000 BC, Gonur-Tepe was the main settlement of the Margush or Margiana region that was home to one of the most sophisticated, but little-known Bronze Age civilisations.
the vast eastern region--with such ancient names as Aria, Arachosia, Bactria, Drangiana, Ferghana, Khwarzem, Margiana, Paropamisadae, Sogdiana, and Transoxiana--broke away from the Seleucid Empire.
Sarianidi, who is the most celebrated living researcher of the Bronze Age of Turkmenistan, also excavated Togolok, situated north of Mary in ancient Margiana.
Sarianidi who has for many years now headed the excavations at the most important site of the BMAC: Gonur depe, in the heart of Margiana north of Mary.
In Sinbad - due for release in 2003 - Crowe will play the adventurer and Zeta Jones his love Margiana, their characters created in their likeness.
According to the Roman historian Pliny, the Parthians moved 10,000 prisoners to Margiana to guard the eastern frontier of Parthia, 600 kilometres east of the Caspian Sea in present Turkmenistan.
Preceded by mana, the genitive of the first personal pronoun, the Old Persian term ba[n]daka occurs nine times in the inscription,(25) as part of the formula by which Darius introduces, in his narrative, the nine men under whose leadership armies defeated some of his rebellious opponents in different parts of the empire: the Persian Hydarnes (Vidarna) in Media (DB 25); the Armenian Dadarshi in Armenia (DB 26-8); the Persian Omises (Vaumisa) in Armenia (DB 29-30); the Mede Takhmaspada in Sagartia (DB 33); the Persian Dadarshi in Margiana (DB 38), satrap in Baktria; the Persian Artavardiya in Persia (DB 41-2); the Persian Vivana in Arachosia (DB 45-7), satrap of the region; the Persian Intaphernes (Vi[n]dafarna) in Babylon (DB 50) and finally the Persian Gobryas (Gaubaruva) in Elam (DB 71).
Fussman provides a balanced assessment of the prospects of finding any clear-cut markers that would point specifically to Indo-Iranians, Iranians, or Indo-Aryans within the area of the Andronovo culture east of the Caspian Sea down through Bactria, Margiana, and the Indus Valley, the likely route taken by the Indians and Iranians into their current homes.
during which Margiana was colonized simultaneously over a large area.
in the areas covered by the terms Bactria, Soghdia and Margiana," today part of southern Uzbekistan, western Tadjikistan, with the valleys running down the Amu Darya (Oxus) River plain and the oasis of the Murghab River around Merv, the last mentioned located within Turkmenistan.