# equilibrium

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## equilibrium,

state of balance. When a body or a system is in equilibrium, there is no net tendency to change. In mechanics, equilibrium has to do with the forces acting on a body. When no force is acting to make a body move in a line, the body is in translational equilibrium; when no force is acting to make the body turn, the body is in rotational equilibrium. A body in equilibrium at rest is said to be in static equilibrium. However, a state of equilibrium does not mean that no forces act on the body, but only that the forces are balanced. For example, when a leverlever,
simple machine consisting of a bar supported at some stationary point along its length and used to overcome resistance at a second point by application of force at a third point. The stationary point of a lever is known as its fulcrum.
is being used to hold up a raised object, forces are being exerted downward on each end of the lever and upward on its fulcrum, but the upward and downward forces balance to maintain translational equilibrium, and the clockwise and counterclockwise moments of the forces on either end balance to maintain rotational equilibrium. The stability of a body is a measure of its ability to return to a position of equilibrium after being disturbed. It depends on the shape of the body and the location of its center of gravity (see center of masscenter of mass,
the point at which all the mass of a body may be considered to be concentrated in analyzing its motion. The center of mass of a sphere of uniform density coincides with the center of the sphere.
). A body with a large flat base and a low center of gravity will be very stable, returning quickly to its position of equilibrium after being tipped. However, a body with a small base and high center of gravity will tend to topple if tipped and is thus less stable than the first body. A body balanced precariously on a point is in unstable equilibrium. Some bodies, such as a ball or a cone lying on its side, do not return to their original position of equilibrium when pushed, assuming instead a new position of equilibrium; these are said to be in neutral equilibrium. In thermodynamicsthermodynamics,
branch of science concerned with the nature of heat and its conversion to mechanical, electric, and chemical energy. Historically, it grew out of efforts to construct more efficient heat engines—devices for extracting useful work from expanding hot gases.
, two bodies placed in contact with each other are said to be in thermal equilibrium when, after a sufficient length of time, their temperatures are equal. Chemical equilibriumchemical equilibrium,
state of balance in which two opposing reversible chemical reactions proceed at constant equal rates with no net change in the system. For example, when hydrogen gas, H2, and iodine gas, I2
refers to reversible chemical reactions in which the reactions involved are occurring in opposite directions at equal rates, so that no net change is observed.

## Equilibrium

The state of a body in which the forces acting on it are equally balanced.

## equilibrium

see SOCIAL EQUILIBRIUM.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Equilibrium

in thermodynamics, such a slow transition of a thermodynamic system from one equilibrium state to another that all intermediate states may be regarded as equilibrium states. It is characterized by a very slow (infinitely slow at the limit) variation of the thermodynamic parameters of state. Any equilibrium process is a reversible process, and, conversely, any reversible process is an equilibrium process.

## equilibrium

[‚ē·kwə′lib·rē·əm]
(chemistry)
(mechanics)
Condition in which a particle, or all the constituent particles of a body, are at rest or in unaccelerated motion in an inertial reference frame. Also known as static equilibrium.
(physics)
Condition in which no change occurs in the state of a system as long as its surroundings are unaltered.
(statistical mechanics)
Condition in which the distribution function of a system is time-independent.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## equilibrium

The state of being equally balanced; a state of a body in which the forces acting on it are equally balanced.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Architecture and Construction. Copyright © 2003 by McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

## equilibrium

1. any unchanging condition or state of a body, system, etc., resulting from the balance or cancelling out of the influences or processes to which it is subjected
2. Physics a state of rest or uniform motion in which there is no resultant force on a body
3. Chem the condition existing when a chemical reaction and its reverse reaction take place at equal rates
4. Physics the condition of a system that has its total energy distributed among its component parts in the statistically most probable manner
5. Physiol a state of bodily balance, maintained primarily by special receptors in the inner ear
6. the economic condition in which there is neither excess demand nor excess supply in a market
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
Then (p*; [([q*.sub.h]).sub.h[member of]P]; x*) constitutes a two-stage market equilibrium. It is an "autarky equilibrium" where each group has zero external trade since [x*.sub.h] = [w.sub.h].
Given the economy, the vector ([a.sup.*], [p.sup.*], [x.sup.*.sub.i], [y.sup.*.sub.i]), i [member of] {[alpha], [beta]}, is a market stationary equilibrium if [a.sup.*] is constant and if given [a.sup.*], ([p.sup.*], [x.sup.*.sub.i],[y.sup.*.sub.i]), i [member of] {[alpha], [beta]}, is a market equilibrium for every t.
Expanding on the work of Granovetter (1978) and Schelling (1978), this section will explore the dynamics of a network market equilibrium. This analysis assumes that users' reservation prices are a linear and contemporaneous function of network membership of the form r[x(t)] = 1 - x(t).
D'Emic reports (258) that Gomez Camacho, a renowned scholar, maintains that market equilibrium price and just price "cannot be the same thing." They may be different variables and be equal under certain circumstances, but it would seem that this is not what Camacho says.
Sharpe, William F., 1964, "Capital Asset Prices: A Theory of Market Equilibrium under Conditions of Risk," Journal of Finance, 19, 425-442.
Equation (5) represents an inter-temporal condition of the capital market equilibrium, since it is entailed by correct expectations of [??] and r at all future dates.
The second is the importance of identifying and highlighting the role of substitutes, recycling, and changes in production/consumption technology have on the market equilibriums. The final is the impact of governmental interventions on the market equilibrium prices through regulations and creating artificial scarcities.
The training course includes a number of important themes that touch on reviewing the basic concepts of economy, such as the demand and supply, market equilibrium and general equilibrium in the economics, as well as the differences between the macroeconomic and microeconomic in the economic analysis.
Social buying and flash sales sites such as Groupon and LivingSocial are an integral part of the economy and the supply-demand market equilibrium. For social buying and flash sales sites to exist, there must be market equilibrium between the demand (quantity of engaged social buyers) and the supply (quantity of fresh, intriguing deals).
In Walrasian equilibrium model, surplus of demand for particular goods over their supply in a competitive market triggers intrinsic stabilizers which eventually lead to the sales growth or increased prices until a new state of market equilibrium is achieved with fully satisfied demand (Daal and Jolink, 1993, p.
Suppose that there are two categories and that the market equilibrium involves cross-subsidies from individuals in the low-risk category to individuals in the high-risk category.

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