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1. Chiefly US a tract in a forest in which trees are scattered or absent
a. the first performance of something, esp a theatrical production
b. (as modifier): the opening night
3. a specific or formal sequence of moves at the start of any of certain games, esp chess or draughts
4. Law the preliminary statement made by counsel to the court or jury before adducing evidence in support of his case
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the removal of foreign matter and defective fibers from cotton and the loosening of the cotton stock; when the process is applied to flax, wool, or other fibers, it is called scutching. Opening is one of the primary production processes in spinning; scutching is one of the initial operations in processing bast fibers. Either is usually carried out after the initial loosening of the material, when the process of beating is most effective in cleaning the material and results in minimum damage to the fibers.

Opening consists of a blow delivered by the working elements of a machine on a layer of fibers held by the machine’s feed mechanisms; the beating action separates the fiber from the foreign matter. Only the largest and least sticky impurities are removed; individual fibers are separated and sticky impurities removed during subsequent carding operations.

Opening is carried out on cotton openers; scutchers are used for other fibers. The basic working members are a drum with cutting, splitting, or beating elements and the beaters. The drums may have smooth, prismatic elements, large pins, saw-toothed elements, or combinations of these types.

In a cotton opener, the loosened cotton stock is fed from the preceding machine to a feed hopper. A control device maintains a constant height of cotton in the hopper, which ensures an even flow of fiber emerging from the machine. The cotton is fed from the hopper by rollers and feed cylinders to a drum, in which blades turn at a speed of 500–600 rpm and strike the cotton layer. Shreds of cotton are torn off and thrown on a grid surrounding the drum, the cotton is additionally agitated, and the freed weed contaminants fall through the grid spaces into waste chambers. A fan sucks air from the mesh drums, creating an air flow that removes the cotton from the drum blades and the grid and carries it to the mesh drums. As the drums rotate, they form a layer of cotton from individual flakes; the layer is removed from the drum surface by cylinders and transported to feed cylinders, which deliver it to the beater. The beater rotates at 900–1,000 rpm and strikes the cotton layer with cleats; the cotton is loosened, and the separated weed contaminants drop through the grid into a waste chamber. A flow of air removes the cotton from the beater cleats and transports it to the next machine.

Scutchers for bast fibers are also equipped with beating drums. The primary working members in wool scutchers are drums with splitting elements. The intensity of processing is determined by the number of blows delivered per unit length or weight of the fiber layer.


Mekhanicheskaia tekhnologiia voloknistykh materialov. Moscow, 1969.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


A break in a coastline or a passage between shoals, and so forth.
(mining engineering)
A widening of a crevice, in consequence of a softening or decomposition of the adjacent rock, so as to leave a vacant space.
A short heading driven between two or more parallel headings or levels for ventilation.
An area in a coal mine between pillars, or between pillars and ribs.
Any break in sea ice which reveals the water.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
References in periodicals archive ?
Firstly, the Commission would need to decide to propose 2009 as the deadline for full market opening. If that happens, liberalisation still needs to be agreed by both the European Parliament and EU Council of Ministers.
And even if EU legislators force full market opening on paper, competition could remain limited on the ground.
The evaluation shows that footwear, medicine, ceramics, and glass products will be impacted by the market opening at extent much higher than the estimate of Chung-Hua Institution for Economic Research, but machinery and bicycles will receive higher benefits, thanks to their export competitiveness and the effect of cross-Strait division of labor.
The remarks conform to the recent remark of Sean Chen that the cross-Strait financial market opening will progress in three stages: the signing of the MOU, laying the groundwork for the opening; initial market opening under WTO regulations; and expanded market opening surpassing WTO commitments of both sides following the signing of ECFA.
There are some positive market openings in the world, particularly in China.
"Apparently, there was a deceptive pricing mechanism on a segregated fund, which these 56 employees were able to use to take advantage of the time difference between market openings in Europe and North America," Francis said.
Included in the new market openings will be Giant markets in Horsham, Audubon, Morrisville and Southampton, PA; Superfresh in Bensalem, Somerton, Levittown, North Wales, Tredyffren and Havertown, PA; Acme in Browns Mills, Washington Township, Mt.
Certain times of day are critical for momentum, like market openings, when there is intense activity from traders coming online and taking positions.
But the endless battle over whether American chickens can be imported into Russia shows that there is powerful opposition to true market openings. Putin may be a secret member of that cabal: In Moscow, he listed all kinds of reasons that Russia shouldn't buy many foreign-made airplanes, saying he had to support domestic industry.
The EU submitted its collective requests involving between twenty and forty other countries, depending on the sector, and has asked its partners for market openings in nine sectors.