Sea of Marmara

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Marmara, Sea of,


Sea of Marmora,

c.4,430 sq mi (11,474 sq km), NW Turkey, between Europe in the north and Asia in the south. The Sea of Marmara, c.175 mi (280 km) long and 50 mi (80 km) wide, is connected on the east with the Black Sea through the Bosporus and on the west with the Aegean Sea (part of the Mediterranean Sea) through the Dardanelles. İstanbul (Constantinople) is located at the entrance of the Bosporus into the Sea of Marmara. The sea has no strong currents and the tidal range is minimal. In ancient times the sea was known as Propontis [Gr.,=fore-sea] from its position relative to the Black Sea. Its modern name is derived from the small island of Marmara or Marmora (ancient Proconnesus), famous for its extensive marble quarries.

Marmara, Sea of


a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between Europe and Asia Minor. Its name is derived from an island in the sea noted for its rich deposits of white marble; its ancient Greek name was Propontis (from pro, “in front” and pontos, “sea”).

In the northeast the sea is connected with the Black Sea through the Bosporus, and in the southwest it is linked with the Aegean Sea through the Dardanelles. It is 280 km long, has a maximum width of 80 km, and covers an area of 11, 472 sq km. Its average volume is 4, 000 cu km, and its maximum depth is 1, 355 m. The sea was formed as a result of major faults in the earth’s crust, which separated the continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The shores are predominantly mountainous, becoming very rugged in the south and east; along its northern coast are numerous submerged reefs. The major islands are Marmara Island and the Princes Islands. The sea does not freeze over; the surface temperature is 9°C in winter and up to 29°C in summer. The hydrological conditions are basically determined by the exchange of water from the Black and Aegean seas through the straits. Salinity on the surface is up to 26 parts per thousand. The sea’s flora and fauna are related to Mediterranean species. Mackerel and other fish are caught in the sea, and it is an important route from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The sea has been studied chiefly by the Russian scientists S. O. Makarov and I. B. Shpindler.


Makarov, S. O. Ob obmene vod Chemogo i Sredizemnogo morel St. Petersburg, 1885.
Shpindler, I. B. Materialy po gidrologii Mramomogo moria, sobrannye ν ekspeditsii 1894 na turetskom parokhode “Selianik.” St. Petersburg, 1896.
References in periodicals archive ?
If Russia cuts gas, it would effectively be shutting down the Marmara region and that would seriously hurt Turkey," he said, adding he did not expect Moscow to take such a step as it would break a 'contractual obligation'.
There is a significant difference among the achievement test results of students for the Marmara Region by the variable relating to whether they learn the region they live in better.
Project Location: North - west of Turkey, in Canakkale province of Marmara Region, in the south - western side of Biga peninsula, westward and very close to Tuzla town, few kilometres northward of Gulpinar town and few kilometres westward Babadere town
As per the report findings, one of the foremost reasons for dominance of Marmara Region is the presence of the high scale of wind power density and favorable wind speed as compare to other regions in Turkey.
Located in the center of the most developed industrial areas in the Marmara Region of Turkey, Yilport has become a choice terminal for transport because of its suitable draft, calm sea, moderate weather and easy access to the main roads.
By 1966, the Rum population in the Marmara region had been reduced to less than 30,000 and is estimated to be around 3,000 today.
Contract Awarded for , the Ministry of Economy Marmara Region Directorate (Istanbul) and Its Affiliated Units of Services To Be Used in 1 (A) Each Passenger Driverless Including Fuel, 5 (Five) Van Glass Type Drive Including Fuel Service Vehicle 1 (A ) Years Will Be Rented.
Snowfall is expected to continue in Marmara region till March 2.
The Marmara region flood had a limited impact on the claims reported in 2009, with a net impact on the loss ratio in the range of 3%.
The Marmara region, in which the ystanbul and Kocaeli provinces are located, has the highest percentage of households with the mandatory public insurance.
Nordex will have to supply seven N117/2400 turbines for the wind farm located close to the port city of Bandirma in the Marmara Region.