Sea of Marmara

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Marmara, Sea of,


Sea of Marmora,

c.4,430 sq mi (11,474 sq km), NW Turkey, between Europe in the north and Asia in the south. The Sea of Marmara, c.175 mi (280 km) long and 50 mi (80 km) wide, is connected on the east with the Black Sea through the Bosporus and on the west with the Aegean Sea (part of the Mediterranean Sea) through the Dardanelles. İstanbul (Constantinople) is located at the entrance of the Bosporus into the Sea of Marmara. The sea has no strong currents and the tidal range is minimal. In ancient times the sea was known as Propontis [Gr.,=fore-sea] from its position relative to the Black Sea. Its modern name is derived from the small island of Marmara or Marmora (ancient Proconnesus), famous for its extensive marble quarries.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Marmara, Sea of


a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, lying between Europe and Asia Minor. Its name is derived from an island in the sea noted for its rich deposits of white marble; its ancient Greek name was Propontis (from pro, “in front” and pontos, “sea”).

In the northeast the sea is connected with the Black Sea through the Bosporus, and in the southwest it is linked with the Aegean Sea through the Dardanelles. It is 280 km long, has a maximum width of 80 km, and covers an area of 11, 472 sq km. Its average volume is 4, 000 cu km, and its maximum depth is 1, 355 m. The sea was formed as a result of major faults in the earth’s crust, which separated the continents of Europe, Asia, and Africa. The shores are predominantly mountainous, becoming very rugged in the south and east; along its northern coast are numerous submerged reefs. The major islands are Marmara Island and the Princes Islands. The sea does not freeze over; the surface temperature is 9°C in winter and up to 29°C in summer. The hydrological conditions are basically determined by the exchange of water from the Black and Aegean seas through the straits. Salinity on the surface is up to 26 parts per thousand. The sea’s flora and fauna are related to Mediterranean species. Mackerel and other fish are caught in the sea, and it is an important route from the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The sea has been studied chiefly by the Russian scientists S. O. Makarov and I. B. Shpindler.


Makarov, S. O. Ob obmene vod Chemogo i Sredizemnogo morel St. Petersburg, 1885.
Shpindler, I. B. Materialy po gidrologii Mramomogo moria, sobrannye ν ekspeditsii 1894 na turetskom parokhode “Selianik.” St. Petersburg, 1896.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
* Marmara Region (Region 1): Balikesir, Bilecik, Bursa, Canakkale, Edirne, Istanbul, Kirklareli, Kocaeli, Sakarya, Tekirdag, Yalova.
Local media have reported that a recent statement by Union of Architects and Engineers of Turkey showed that most of the buildings in Marmara region are still not safe with the potential risk of collapse in a quake.
The proportion of patients who knew why they were using warfarin was statistically higher in the Aegean, Anatolia and Central Anatolia (respectively 91.0%, 90.4% and 88.4%) regions; on the other hand, it was similar in the Mediterranean and Marmara regions (respectively 82.7% and 81.1%) and significantly lower in the South-eastern and Black Sea regions (respectively 75.4% and 60.2%).
The air masses moving from the Azores high pressure to the Basra low pressure in the Marmara Region, gather humidity while passing over the Black Sea and bring Summer rains particularly to the coasts of the Black Sea.
According to data from the Turkish Statistical Institute (TSI), the Aegean and Marmara regions have the lowest rates of consanguineous marriage.
"The Marmara region buys almost all of its gas from Russia and this region makes up 40 per cent of Turkey's GDP (gross domestic product) as well as its energy consumption," said FACTS Global Energy consultant Cuneyt Kazokoglu.
Investigations on the identification seed transmission and host range of viruses infecting the culture plants in the Cucurbitaceae in Marmara region. 1.
A previous study reported no difference in ABO and Rh groups in controls and patients with Behcet's disease from the eastern Marmara Region of Turkey (16).
The results for question 1, given in Table 1, indicate that the geographical region where there is the highest percentage (25%) of schools participating in TIMSS is in the Marmara region. Question 2 asked which residential location the school is situated in.
The first of these is the Northern Marmara Region and De?irmenkoy Natural Gas Underground Storage Project.
The highest rise in divorces was seen in the western Marmara region with 7.3 percent.
In 1999 an earthquake measuring 7.6 on the Richter scale devastated the industrialised Marmara region, including some suburbs of Istanbul, and killed some 20,000 people.