Marne, battle of the

Marne, battle of the,

two important battles of World War I that are named for the Marne River. In the first battle (Sept. 6–9, 1914) the German advance on Paris was halted at the Marne by the Allies under JoffreJoffre, Joseph Jacques Césaire
, 1852–1931, marshal of France. He began his career as a military engineer in the French colonies and was appointed French commander in chief in 1911.
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, GallieniGallieni, Joseph Simon
, 1849–1916, French general and colonial administrator. He served well in the Sudan and Tonkin and, as governor-general (1896–1905), solidly established French administration in Madagascar.
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, and Sir John French. The German retreat that followed signified the abandonment of the Schlieffen plan (see under Schlieffen, Alfred, Graf vonSchlieffen, Alfred, Graf von
, 1833–1913, German field marshal and strategist. In the tradition of the Prussian officer corps, Schlieffen was a professional soldier who considered political questions beyond his responsibility.
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). In the second battle (July, 1918) the last great German offensive was decisively repulsed by the Allies.

Bibliography

See studies by R. H. Asprey (1962), G. Blond (tr. 1965), and H. Isselin (tr. 1965).

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