These baptised Jews and their descendants who were suspected of secret adherence to Judaism were called 'Marrano
' meaning 'swine,' in Spanish, insinuating the Jewish abhorrence of pork.
An interesting parallel case would arise later, in July 1651, when Spinoza's father, Michael d'Espinoza, appointed the Portuguese Marrano
, Antonio Fernandes Carvajal, his agent in London, to represent him before the High Court of the Admiralty to act on his behalf in trying to reclaim two consignments of olive oil belonging to the Spinoza firm seized by English Parliamentary vessels on the high seas, at a time of dispute between England and Portugal.
Era judeu marrano
? Nao se sabe, nunca se vira, porventura, a averiguar.
However, it is fundamental to also understand how the conquest of the Americas affected the conquest of "Moriscos" (converted Muslims) and "Marranos
" (converted Jews) in the Iberian Peninsula in the 16th century.
Despite initial hopes of a return to Judaism, over time the Marranos
' Christian pretence became part and parcel of their essential identity.
One such group of "The Other Within" are those one might describe as contradictory Marranos
, or Judaizers, whose dual identity had assumed diverse forms--one in which they desired to retain their Jewishness, though in secret, and thus had not truly assimilated into the Christian community.
A number of scholars have argued that Spinoza's skeptical views were cryptic, that Spinoza employed a sort of "dual language" in typical Marrano
A pesar de las numerosas leyes que restringian la emigracion hacia el Nuevo Mundo, la presencia de criptojudios (o marranos
, como se les llamaba despectivamente) en las colonias espanolas es perceptible desde el comienzo de la conquista y aumenta considerablemente luego de la unificacion de los reinos ibericos en 1580.
A History of the Marranos
, Iewish Publication Society, Filadelfia
The book equates klezmer with hybridity and revisionism, and then searches out instances of said hybridity in a variety of different venues--from the lives and work of frequently discussed American Jewish characters like Tony Kushner, Arthur Miller, and Norman Mailer, to less expected sites such as the evangelical Christian Left Behind series, the "discovery" of Marranos
in the American Southwest, and the autobiographical fiction of a number of young Asian American novelists.
Her Jewish father, Baptisma Bassano, was among a group of court musicians from Venice, brought to England by Henry VIII (most of the estimated 200 British Jews then living as Marranos
or Conversos were connected to the court, including the Queen's physician, Roderigo Lopez, later hanged for treason).
(3.) A History of the Marranos
(New York: Harper and Row, 1966) p.