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A metastable transitional structure formed by a shear process during a phase transformation, characterized by an acicular or needlelike pattern; in carbon steel it is a hard, supersaturated solid solution of carbon in a body-centered tetragonal lattice of iron.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the structure of crystalline solids arising as the result of a slip, diffusionless polymorphic transformation on cooling. It is named for the German specialist in physical metallurgy A. Martens (1850-1914).

As a result of a lattice deformation, known as cooperative displacement, during the transformation, a relief appears on the surface of the metal. Internal strain arises in the bulk and plastic deformation occurs, which limit crystal growth. The rate of growth reaches 103 m/sec and is independent of temperature. Hence, the rate of martensite formation is usually limited by crystal nucleation. The reaction of the internal strain shifts crystal nucleation greatly below the thermodynamic phase equilibrium point and may stop the transformation at constant temperatures. Thus, the amount of martensite formed usually increases with an increase in supercooling.

Since the elastic energy must be minimal, martensite crystals take the shape of plates (needles in cross section) regularly oriented relative to the initial lattice. The internal strain is also reduced by plastic deformation and thus the crystal contains many dislocations (up to 1012 cm-2) or is split into twins with a thickness of 10-100 nanometers (100-1000 angstroms). Intragranular boundaries and dislocations strengthen martensite.

Martensite is a typical product of low-temperature polymorphic transformations in pure metals such as iron, cobalt, titanium, zirconium, and lithium; in solid solutions based on these metals; and in intermetallic compounds such as CuZn, Cu3Al, NiTi, V3Si, and AuCd.

Martensite in steel is a supersaturated Fe-C solution obtained by hardening from austenite. The ordered position of carbon atoms that results from martensite displacement transforms the body-centered lattice of a-iron from cubic to tetragonal. The distortion of the lattice near the interstitial atoms results in hardness. The tetragonality and the hardness increase with the carbon content. Hardness increases up to 1,000 HV (Vickers hardness).

Carbon martensite is the major structural component of most high-strength steels. The carbon content in the solid solution and the martensite subgranular structure change upon tempering, which is used for increasing the ductility of steel.

Carbon is the most important factor of martensite strength in steel. The strength of noncarbon maraging steel results from the separation of intermetallic compounds upon aging.

The physical characteristics of Fe-C martensite as an interstitial solid solution, the source of its high strength, and the kinetics of martensite formation were established by G. V. Kurdiumov.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Intergranular fracture is also a common fracture mode observed for both tempered martensite embrittlement in plain carbon steels and temper embrittlement in alloy steels in the presence of phosphorus.
The SEM micrograph showing the HAZ subzones of TRIP steel spot weld is presented in Figure 5a indicating the tempering of the martensite in SCHAZ and ICHAZ [15].
The largest grains within the HAZ are ~43 [micro]m in diameter, and there appears to be some transformation to lath martensite.
The result should be justified considering the softening of the structure and the reduction in martensite tetragonality which stems from an increase in the tempering temperature.
The temperature transformation points of the austenite and martensite phases of the samples were determined and analyzed on the table and the thermal properties of the shape memory alloys were obtained.
It is reported that there are very slight dimensional changes (of the order of 0.02%) in these steels [6] after martensite age hardening (maraging) heat treatments.
Caption: Figure 4: (a) Optical micrograph of tempered steel; it is composed of ferrite (white) and tempered martensite (dark).
This is due to the fact that the austenitic phase is loaded elastically up to a "yield" stress where a stress-induced transformation from austenite to martensite takes place.
Figure 5 presents the TEM results: (a) illustrates a typical fine quenched and tempered martensite structure in the 34CrMo4 steel.
(8) If the material is heated while in the martensitic phase, the martensite becomes unstable, and reverse transformation (RT) occurs.
The stability of retained austenite is also controlled by silicon which also prevents carbides from forming, and therefore provides sufficient super-saturation of martensite with carbon.
First, the retained austenite transformation into non-tempered martensite that tends to increase the ball volume and then its diameter: the retained austenite measured on the balls from sample "A" after failure was around 4.3% (measurements performed on plate at about 2 mm depth).