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(Marcus Valerius Martialis) (mär`shəl), c.A.D. 40–c.A.D. 104, Roman epigrammatic poet, b. Bilbilis, Spain. After A.D. 64 he lived in Rome for many years, winning fame by his wit and poetic gifts. He enjoyed the patronage of TitusTitus
(Titus Flavius Sabinus Vespasianus) , A.D. 39–A.D. 81, Roman emperor (A.D. 79–A.D. 81). Son of Emperor Vespasian, Titus was closely associated with his father in military campaigns, and after A.D. 71 he acted as coruler with the emperor.
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, DomitianDomitian
(Titus Flavius Domitianus) , A.D. 51–A.D. 96, Roman emperor (A.D. 81–A.D. 96), son of Vespasian. Although intended as the heir to his older brother, Titus, he was given no important posts.
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, and Pliny the Younger (see under Pliny the ElderPliny the Elder
(Caius Plinius Secundus) , c.A.D. 23–A.D. 79, Roman naturalist, b. Cisalpine Gaul. He was a friend and fellow soldier of Vespasian, and he dedicated his great work to Titus.
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) and the friendship of JuvenalJuvenal
(Decimus Junius Juvenalis) , fl. 1st to 2d cent. A.D., Roman satirical poet. His verse established a model for the satire of indignation, in contrast to the less harsh satire of ridicule of Horace.
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 and QuintilianQuintilian
(Marcus Fabius Quintilianus) , c.A.D. 35–c.A.D. 95, Roman rhetorician, b. Calagurris (now Calahorra), Spain. He taught rhetoric at Rome (Pliny the Younger and possibly Tacitus were among his pupils) and, as a public teacher, was endowed with a salary by
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. He wrote more than 1,500 epigrams, most of which concern aspects of life in urban Rome, particularly its follies and excesses, and many of which deal openly and often scathingly with the sexual practices of his contemporaries. Martial's verses are frequently characterized by a twist of wit at the end as well as by original meter and form, and have become models for the modern epigramepigram,
a short, polished, pithy saying, usually in verse, often with a satiric or paradoxical twist at the end. The term was originally applied by the Greeks to the inscriptions on stones. The epigrams of the Latin poet Martial established the form for many later writers.
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See The Epigrams of Martial, tr. by J. Michie (1973); Epigrams/Martial, 3 vol., tr. by D. R. Shackleton Bailey (1993); Martial's Epigrams: A Selection, tr. by G. Wills (2008).



(Marcus Valerius Martialis). Born c. A.D. 40, in Bilbilis, Spain; died there c. A.D. 104. Roman poet.

Martial wrote 15 books of epigrams—three with a common theme (Liber spectaculorum, Apophoreta, Xenia) and 12 of mixed content. These witty epigrams depict the life of various social strata; they are apt, mocking, and refined miniatures. His works were highly thought of by G. E. Lessing and J. W. Goethe and, in Russia, by M. V. Lomonosov, P. A. Viazemskii, and A. S. Pushkin.


Martialis epigrammaton, I-XIV. Edited by C. Giarratano. Turin, 1916; 3rd ed. Turin, 1951.
Epigrams, vols. 1-2. London, 1968.
In Russian translation:
Epigrammy. Moscow [1968].


Istoriia rimskoi literatury, vol. 2. Edited by S. I. Sobolevskii [et al.]. Moscow, 1962.
Barwick, K. Martial und die zeitgenössische Rhetorik. Berlin, 1959.


full name Marcus Valerius Martialis. ?40--?104 ad, Latin epigrammatist and poet, born in Spain
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The DNA analysis also suggests that Martialis heureka appeared on Earth earlier than any other ant living here today.
Here, the dispersal movements and strays are scarce, and the populations of resident species decrease (sometimes strikingly) that species as Asbolis capucinus, Panoquina ocola, Nyctelius nyctelius, Eurema daira and Strymon martialis, may not be observed on a field visit.
I have already noted the way Cornelius dealt with Maximus, the Roman presbyter and confessor, and how Stephen had responded to the former Spanish bishops, Basilides and Martialis. While Cornelius agreed with the policy but made an exception, Stephen's position is less clear.
Por otro lado, el segundo se encontro en Andelo,y es un exvoto que Manilius Martialis dispuso a Larrahe,posiblemente una deidad vascona.
Valerii Martialis Epigranunaton liber primus, Firenze 1975, 72.
Valerii Martialis Epigrammaton liber primus cit., 11, l'aver ravvisato in questo caso un'allusione a un noto aneddoto riferito da Valerio Massimo (2, 10, 8), secondo cui Catone Uticense, assistendo ad uno spettacolo di mimi e accortosi dell'imbarazzo del pubblico nel chiedere la consueta nudatio mimarum, si allontano dal teatro per evitare che la sua presenza impedisse una consolidata abitudine.
Yet the species Martialis heureka could help rewrite the history of ants on Earth.
Resistance and alienation of the slaves in the texts of Petronius, Martialis and Juvenalis
(61) Alciato's chapter (4.24) is entitled: "Belisarium summum ducem haudquaquam a Iustiniano afflictum fuisse; et confutata fabula quam Crinitus, Pontanus, Volaterranus [sic] scriptis mandarunt." He begins: "Scripsit Petrus Crinitus libros 15 De honesta disciplina, de quibus quid in universum sentiam non habeo nunc necesse pronunciare; in partes vero recte Martialis carmen poterit praedicari: 'Sunt mala, sunt quaedam mediocria, sunt bona plura'" (1.16).
67.6.3 mentions that the former bishop Martialis was married and had children, and that two of Cyprian's presbyters, Numidicus and Novatus, were married (eps.
Non Lucilius hic Lucretiusque est, non Turnus, Memor, Ennius, Catullus Stella et Septimius Petroniusque aut mordax sine fine Martialis, non qui tempore Caesaris secundi aeterno incoluit Tomus reatu, nec qui consimili deinde casu ad uulgi tenuem strepentis auram irati fuit histrionis exsul, non Pelusiaco satus Canopo, qui ferruginei toros mariti et Musa canit inferos superna (29).