(13) Transcribed in Vilhjalmur Stefansson, The Three Voyages of Martin Frobisher
, 2 vols (London, 1938), 2.238-9.
* Martin Frobisher
, an explorer, held his own day of thanks after surviving a journey where he set out to discover a northern passage from Europe to Asia in 1578.
, 55, PolitiFact.com designer and Times Web designer since 1999.
Starting with Martin Frobisher
's arrival in 1576, the author uses interviews with Inuit elders to provide the flip- side to Euro-centric historical accounts of Arctic exploration, showing the richness of the oral traditions and how they compare to the writings of Parry, Ross, Amundsen and Rasmussen.
In her prologue, Armstrong sets the scene for her investigation by examining some of the more influential sixteenth-century discourses on America; she assesses how translations of French and Spanish travel narratives and the texts of Elizabethan explorers and commentators, such as Richard Hakluyt, Walter Ralegh, Martin Frobisher
, Thomas Harriot, and John Davis, shaped perceptions of America, which in turn helped to establish the pattern of exploration and settlement.
BACKGROUND: Martin Frobisher
was born in Yorkshire, England.
In the first book, Beware, Pirates!, Matt and Emily ride the sled back to 1577, and end up aboard the privateer Martin Frobisher
's ship in the Arctic.
The 16th century was an era of voyaging and expansion for Europeans, but while the likes of Martin Frobisher
and Walter Raleigh were probing the borders of the known world in search of valuable commodities to bolster the Elizabethan war chest, there were others with more artistic reasons for finding what lay beyond the western oceans.
The opera is misnamed because it's not really about the explorer Martin Frobisher
. He's really just a hook (left sitting backstage midway through Act II, while his Queen doesn't make it beyond the intermission) to explore ideas about dreaming impossible dreams, and then dealing with the reality of not achieving them.
Into this he weaves English voyages of commerce and, as a student of Martin Frobisher
, discovery that often ran afoul of both Spain's claimed monopolies and the Inquisition.
On the second of three journeys to Baffin Island in 1577, Englishman Martin Frobisher
kidnapped three Inuit--a man, a woman, and a child--and brought them back to England as "trophies." The man's name was recorded as "Kalicho." I've seen an exhibit at the British Museum in London, which displayed an illustration of this hapless fellow, with his name written as "Kalitsaq."
Explorer roses, e.g., 'Martin Frobisher
,' 'Henry Red--Love, Respect; White--Innocence, Secrecy; Dark Crimson--Mourning; Dark Pink--Thankfulness; Lavender--Enchantment; Orange--Fascination; Pale Pink--Grace, Joy; Yellow--Joy, Friendship; White & Red Together--Unity; Rosebud--Beauty & Youth, Thornless--Love at First Sight'; A Single Red Rose--Love at First Sight or I Still Love You; A Single Rose in any Colour--Simplicity & Gratitude.