Martin I, Saint

Martin I, Saint,

d. 655?, pope (649–55?), an Italian, b. Todi; successor of Theodore I. On his accession he summoned a great council at the Lateran, as St. MaximusMaximus, Saint,
c.580–662, Greek theologian. He was secretary to Emperor Heraclius and subsequently abbot at the monastery of Chrysopolis. To curb Monotheletism he went to Rome and persuaded Pope St.
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 had urged, to deal with MonotheletismMonotheletism
or Monothelitism
[Gr.,=one will], 7th-century opinion condemned as heretical by the Third Council of Constantinople in 680 (see Constantinople, Third Council of).
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, discussion of which had been forbidden by Byzantine Emperor Constans IIConstans II
(Constans Pogonatus), 630–68, Byzantine emperor (641–68), son and successor of Constantine III and grandson of Heraclius. Early in his reign Armenia and Asia Minor were invaded by the Muslims, who challenged Byzantine supremacy at sea, took Cyprus, and
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. The council condemned all Monothelete utterances, including the imperial edicts of Heraclius (Ecthesis) and Constans (Typus) and the private letter of Pope Honorius IHonorius I
, pope (625–38), an Italian; successor of Boniface V. He showed great interest in the church in Spain and the British Isles, and he did a great deal to reform the education of the clergy.
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. It also enunciated the Catholic dogma of two natures, two wills, and two energies in one Person in Jesus. Martin issued an encyclical confirming the council's acts. To punish his defiance Constans ordered Martin taken to Naxos and imprisoned with great privations. Later, he was publicly humiliated in Constantinople and finally exiled in the Crimea. He soon died there and was immediately acclaimed a martyr (the last pope to be martyred) by Catholics of East and West. He was succeeded by St. Eugene I. Feast: Nov. 12.
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