Mary of Burgundy

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Mary of Burgundy,

1457–82, wife of Maximilian of Austria (later Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian IMaximilian I,
1459–1519, Holy Roman emperor and German king (1493–1519), son and successor of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III. As emperor, he aspired to restore forceful imperial leadership and inaugurate much-needed administrative reforms in the increasingly
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), daughter and heiress of Charles the BoldCharles the Bold,
1433–77, last reigning duke of Burgundy (1467–77), son and successor of Philip the Good. As the count of Charolais before his accession, he opposed the growing power of King Louis XI of France by joining (1465) the League of Public Weal.
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 of Burgundy. The marriage of Mary was a major event in European history, for it established the Hapsburgs in the Low Countries and initiated the long rivalry between France and Austria. At her father's death (Jan., 1477) Louis XI of France seized Burgundy and Picardy and prepared to annex the Low Countries, Artois, Luxembourg, and Franche-Comté—Mary's entire inheritance. To gain the assistance of Flanders, Brabant, Hainaut, and Holland, whose representatives met at Ghent in Feb., 1477, Mary granted the Great Privilege, which restored the liberties of the provincial estates that her father and grandfather had abrogated. She then rejected Louis XI's proposal that she marry the dauphin Charles, and in May she married Maximilian, who had hastened to her assistance with an army. However, the Low Countries remained in turmoil; despite his victory at Guinegate (1479), Maximilian was forced (1483) to agree to the Treaty of Arras (see Arras, Treaty ofArras, Treaty of.
1 Treaty of 1435, between King Charles VII of France and Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy. Through it, France and Burgundy became reconciled. Philip deserted his English allies and recognized Charles as king of France.
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), by which Franche-Comté and Artois passed to France. Mary's premature death, caused by a fall from horseback, left her young son Philip (later Philip IPhilip I
(Philip the Handsome), 1478–1506, Spanish king of Castile (1506), archduke of Austria, titular duke of Burgundy, son of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I and Mary of Burgundy.
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 of Castile) her heir, but only in 1493 was Maximilian able to regain control over the Low Countries, where Philip had been a virtual prisoner until 1485. The Treaty of Senlis (1493) with France restored Artois and Franche-Comté to Philip, but Burgundy and Picardy remained French.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Mary of Burgundy


(Marie de Bourgogne). Born Feb. 13, 1457, in Brussels; died Mar. 27, 1482, in Bruges. Daughter and heiress of the Burgundian duke Charles the Bold, whose throne she inherited in January 1477 after his death. However, part of the Burgundian state, including the duchy of Burgundy, passed to the king of France, and Mary of Burgundy was able to take possession of the Netherlands only after signing the Great Privilege (Grand Privilege). In order to strengthen her power, she married Maximilian Hapsburg (the future emperor Maximilian I), as a result of which the Hapsburgs gained possession of the Netherlands.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
After the duke's death in 1477 he stayed on in the chapel of Mary of Burgundy and Maximilian of Austria.
1422-1502) written following the unexpected death of Mary of Burgundy in March 1482, and describing an ageing knight's search for salvation.
Dionysius, the cavorting of dead and alive bodies in the Berlin hourbook of Mary of Burgundy, and the good death of Richard Whittingtom.) The essays also cover the notion of bodily rhetoric, as the function of the body in Eupolemius, inscriptions in flesh, masculinity and persuasion in medieval rhetoric, the performing body (as it figured in executions for treason to heal the treason, impotence and sexuality in theology and canon law, and body talk in medieval Islam.) Finally, contributors examine the medieval material body, describing the occurrence of leprous feminine flesh as it related to death and de Pizan's representation of death as metamorphosis.
The tradition of diamond engagement rings was started in 1477 by Archduke Maximilian of Austria, who gave one to Mary of Burgundy. Before this it was kings who wore diamond rings as a symbol of strength, courage and invincibility (so that''s why the wife wanted one!) In my last column I told you about a coin called a Gold Angel, so called because one side depicts an angel slaying a dragon.
You can probably lay the blame for that on King Maximilian I of Germany, who in 1477 proposed to Mary of Burgundy and ever after lumbered men everywhere with an expensive obligation.
In contrast to Mary of Burgundy, Barbara Pallavicina never was given the opportunity to exert her own agency in the construction of her image, which was entirely subject to her father's control.
This is a field that still offers extraordinary treasures, and here was everything from one of the oldest English books surviving in private hands--a Gospel of St Luke of around 1120-40--to the fabulous and extraordinarily tiny Korner Hours, thought to have been made for Charles the Bold or a member of his immediate family around 1475-80 and illuminated by two of the most significant artists of the middle ages, Simon Marmion and the so-called Master of Mary of Burgundy. The Gospel, estimated at 60,000[pounds sterling]-80,000 [pounds sterling], went to a private British collector for 253,250 [pounds sterling], but the Korner Hours, estimated with the same numbers but more noughts, failed to sell.
On 27 March 1482 the Burgundian duchess Mary of Burgundy died from injuries she had sustained falling off her horse some weeks before.
In contrast, during her lifetime Mary of Burgundy was able to commission portraits that demonstrated her persona as an active ruler through invoking classical precedents.
Reindert Falkenburg (on Bosch's Garden of Earthly Delights), Todd Richardson (on Bruegel's Festival of Fools), and Bret Rothstein (on the marginalia in the Hours of Mary of Burgundy) make interesting assumptions about the visual sophistication and sense of play that some contemporary viewers of these works must have possessed.
Identification is further confused by the collaboration of several artists on one manuscript, such as The Hours of Mary of Burgundy, and the number of their assistants contributing individual components, such as borders and initials.
Take the so-called Vienna Master of Mary of Burgundy, whose Book of Hours made in the 1470s for Mary of Burgundy and housed in Vienna has been considered a landmark in the development of illumination art.