Mashhad


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Mashhad

(mäsh-häd`), city (1991 pop. 1,759,155), capital of Razavi Khorasan prov., NE Iran. It is an industrial and trade center and a transportation hub. Manufactures include carpets, textiles, and processed foods. Mashhad is a religious center visited annually by large numbers of Muslim pilgrims. Formerly known as Sanabadh, it is the site of the shrine of the Imam Ali Riza, a Shiite holy person. Imam Riza died (819) in the city after visiting the grave of Caliph Harun ar-RashidHarun ar-Rashid
[Arab.,=Aaron the Upright], c.764–809, 5th and most famous Abbasid caliph (786–809). He succeeded his brother Musa al-Hadi, fourth caliph, a year after the death of his father, Mahdi, the third caliph.
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, who had died there 10 years before; he was buried next to Harun, and the shrine was built over both graves. The city was attacked by the Oghuz Turks (12th cent.) and by the Mongols (13th cent.), but recovered by the 14th cent., when it came to be known as Mashhad [Arab.,="place of martyrdom" or "shrine"]. It prospered under the SafavidsSafavid
, Iranian dynasty (1499–1736), that established Shiite Islam in Iran as an official state religion. The Safavid state provided both the territorial and societal foundations of modern Iran.
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, who were devout Shiite Muslims; Shah Abbas IAbbas I
(Abbas the Great) , 1557–1629, shah of Persia (1587–1628), of the Safavid dynasty. In 1597 he ended the raids of the Uzbeks, and subsequently (1603–23) he conquered extensive territories from the Turks.
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 embellished Mashhad with elaborate buildings. It reached its greatest glory in the 18th cent., when Nadir ShahNadir Shah
or Nader Shah
, 1688–1747, shah of Iran (1736–47), sometimes considered the last of the great Asian conquerors. He was a member of the Afshar tribe.
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 made Mashhad the capital of Persia. The city took on strategic importance in the late 19th cent. because of its proximity to the Russian and Afghan borders. The bombing of the sanctuary of the Imam Riza by the Russians in 1912 caused widespread resentment in the Shiite Muslim world. In 1996 the city became the terminus of a new railroad linking Iran with Turkmenistan and the rest of Central Asia. Near Mashhad are the remains of the former city of Tus, birthplace of the poet FirdausiFirdausi
or Ferdowsi
, c.940–1020, principal Persian poet, author of the Shah Namah [the book of kings], the great Persian epic. His original name was Abul Kasim Mansur; he is thought to have been born of a yeoman family of Khorasan.
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 and the philosopher al-GhazaliGhazali, al-
, 1058–1111, Islamic theologian, philosopher, and mystic. He was born at Tus in Khorasan, of Persian origin. He is considered the greatest theologian in Islam.
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. Mashhad itself is the seat of a university (founded 1947). The city is also known as Meshed.

Mashhad

, Meshed
a city in NE Iran: an important holy city of Shi'ite Muslims; carpet manufacturing. Pop.: 2 147 000 (2005 est.)
References in periodicals archive ?
The direct flight is scheduled for every Friday from Mashhad to Herat and vice versa, Director General of Khorasan Razavi Airports Company Mohammad Bagher Ghasemzadeh added.
More than 350,000 pilgrims from Pakistan alone visited Mashhad last year.
Later, Prime Minister Imran Khan visited the shrine of Hazrat Imam Raza (AS) in Mashhad. The prime minister paid respects at the shrine and offered Nawafil.
A prosecutor in Mashhad, Gholam-Ali Sadeqi, was quoted March 11 by the Tasnim news agency as saying a "verdict has been issued" against White and that he faced security charges.
We thank Mashhad University of Medical Sciences for financial support.
The study was reviewed and approved by Ethical Committee of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Ref.
While some flights from neighbouring countries such as Saudi Arabia and Bahrain to Iran have been cancelled, Oman Air is taking advantage of the situation by flying passengers to Mashhad for its religious culture and traditions.
Oman Air held a celebration this week to mark its inaugural flight between Muscat and the Iranian city of Mashhad. The first flight on June 1 and was followed by a press conference.
It utilises a Boeing 737-800 aircraft and flights depart Muscat International Airport at 14.00, arriving at Mashhad International Airport (also known as Shahid Hashemi Nejad Airport) at 17.15.
Flights will depart Muscat International Airport at 2pm and arrive at Mashhad International Airport (also known as Shahid Hashemi Nejad Airport) at 5.15pm.
Mashhad, June 1 (ONA) Oman Air, the national carrier of the Sultanate, celebrated the launch of Muscat, Mashhad route, which is Oman Air's second destination in Iran, following the launch of flights to Tehran in 2012.
Al Sharaf caravan owner Sayed Mohammed Saleh, who organises pilgrimages to Mashhad, told the GDN he shelved travel plans for two large groups, consisting of more than 50 Bahrainis.