# Binding Energy

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Related to Mass difference: neutron binding energy, Nuclear Mass Defect

## binding energy

[′bīn·diŋ ¦en·ər·jē]
(physics)
Abbreviated BE. Also known as total binding energy (TBE).
The net energy required to remove a particle from a system.
The net energy required to decompose a system into its constituent particles.

## Energy, Binding

(also separation energy), the energy of any bound system of particles (such as an atom) equal to the work required to decompose the system into constituent particles such that they are an infinite distance from each other and cannot interact. It is a negative quantity, since energy is released in the course of the formation of the bound state, and its absolute value characterizes the bond strength (for example, the stability of nuclei).

According to the Einstein relation, the binding energy is equivalent to the mass defect Δm: ΔE = Δmc2, where c is the velocity of light in a vacuum (seeMASS DEFECT). It is determined by the type of interaction between the particles in a given system. Thus, the binding energy of the nucleus is due to the strong interactions of the nucleons in the nucleus (in the more stable nuclei of intermediate atoms, the specific binding energy is ~8 × 106 electron volts [eV]). The energy may be released when light nuclei fuse into heavier ones, as well as upon the fission of heavy nuclei, which is explained by the decrease of the specific binding energy with increasing atomic number.

The binding energy of electrons in an atom or molecule is determined by the electromagnetic interactions, and for each electron it is proportional to the ionization potential; it is equal to 13.6 eV for an electron of the hydrogen atom in the normal state. These same interactions are responsible for the binding energy of atoms in a molecule or crystal. In the case of the gravitational interaction, the binding energy is ordinarily small; however, it may be of considerable magnitude for certain celestial objects, such as black holes.

References in periodicals archive ?
Thus a correction factor of 44/26 (i.e., 1.69) should be applied to the measured mass difference to calculate the true mass of C[O.sub.2] absorbed.
It exhibits a broad signal containing 2 barely resolved peaks corresponding to the normal [beta]--and the mutated [[beta].sub.x]-chain with a mass difference of 14 Da.
Results of tests of significance carried out on the body-mass distribution of birds of the boreal forest: S = Silverman's (1981) test using the smoothing constant h; [N.sub.1] = test for a significant number of clumps in Holling's (1992) body- mass difference index; [N.sub.2] = test for a significant number of clumps in the logarithms of body-mass ratios; Var = test for a significantly high variance of the logarithms of body-mass ratios.
(ii) The parameter [[epsilon].sub.0] at 3[sigma] level has notable impact on the squared mass difference [delta][m.sup.2.sub.21].
Thus, for example, the mass difference between the [[DELTA].sup.0] and [[DELTA].sup.++] baryons is less than 3 MeV [8], whereas the mass difference between the [DELTA] multiplet and the nucleons is about 300 MeV.
and Canada, is sensitive to just 0.003 percent of the mass of the Earth, and one ten-millionth of Jupiter's mass (corresponding to a mass difference of two hundred thousand million million tons).
Also, minimum mass difference between heterozygotes increases to 16 Da for A/G heterozygote in SPC-SBE because of the use of biotinylated ddNTPs, compared with 9 Da for A/T heterozygote with regular ddNTPs.
Here [[tau].sub.n] is the neutron decay lifetime, [E.sub.e] and [E.sub.v] are the electron and antineutrino energies, and Q is the neutron-proton mass difference: 1293 keV.
319) indicated a relatively large mass difference between muon and electron neutrinos.
Thus, the experimental mass difference (in MeV) of the k, [pi] mesons is [6]
ESI-MS/MS detects and quantifies IDS-P and IDS-IS product ions after collision-induced elimination of S[O.sub.3] from the annhydromannosyl residue (80-Da mass difference; see Fig.
Matching the volumes of the reference and gas cylinders to within 100 c[m.sup.3] eliminates the need for a buoyancy correction because a 1 kPa drift of atmospheric pressure changes the mass difference by less than the 2 mg repeatability of the balance.

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