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the collective name for a group of Transcaspian and Aral tribes, in the works of ancient Greek authors.

The vagueness of the information contained in the sources has given rise to numerous hypotheses about the identity of the Massagetae and their ethnic background. Some scholars have held that the name “Massagetae” derives from the Avestan word masyo, or “fish,” and means “fish-eaters.” Others derive the name from the Avestan masyaka (massja-ga) and the Ossetic I’d, “the great Saka (Scythian) horde.” According to a third hypothesis, the word “Massagetae” signifies Mas-Ngetsi, the Iranian for “great Goths,” and the Massagetae themselves are to be identified with the ta (large) yileh-chih of the ancient Chinese chronicles. S. P. Tolstov, who shares the last opinion, regards certain archaeological remains of the lower Syr Darya region as being of Massagetae origin. However, not one of these hypotheses is universally accepted.

It is not always clear to which tribes an ancient author is referring when he calls them Massagetae. According to Herodotus, the Massagetae were nomads, who did battle on foot and on horseback; their horses wore breastplates in battle, and the weapons and utensils of the Massagetae were of copper and gold. Cyrus the Great, the founder of the Achaemenid state, perished in battle with the Massagetae, who were led by their queen, Tomyris.

According to Strabo, the Massagetae worshipped the sun and sacrificed horses to it. Along with nomads, Strabo designates as Massagetae the inhabitants of the Aral swamplands and islands, who lived by primitive gathering and fishing, and also certain tribes that knew agriculture (such as the Khwarazmians).


Tolstov, S. P. Drevnii Khorezm. Moscow, 1948.
Tolstov, S. P. Po drevnim del’tam Oksa i laksarta. Moscow, 1962.
P’iankov, I. V. “K voprosu o marshrute pokhoda Kira II na massagetov.” Vestnik drevnei istorii, 1964, no. 3.


References in classic literature ?
8-35) `(The Sons of Boreas pursued the Harpies) to the lands of the Massagetae and of the proud Half-Dog men, of the Underground-folk and of the feeble Pygmies; and to the tribes of the boundless Black-skins and the Libyans.
The Greek historians who noted the death of Cyrus the Great in battle against the Massagetae ("Great Geats") gave conflicting reports about where--probably Uzbekistan--the fighting took place, and they seem similarly confused about the geography of Darius I's campaign against the nomadic Scythians.
It is not a coincidence that Herodotus later has Croesus urge Cyrus to cross a river into the territory of the Massagetae (1.
He also claims that Dr Tim Taylor selectively interprets Mallory & Murphy's article in ANTIQUITY on Herodotus' account of funerary cannibalism among the Massagetae, claiming support for cannibalism rather than their conclusion that the bodies were merely defleshed for manageable packaged transport.
Their ethnogenetic ties reach down to peoples and tribes preceding our era: to the Dakhs, the Massagetae, the Alans, the Huns, and others.
can be compared to the customs of the Iranian Massagetae (Herodotus 1,216).
In his description of the Massagetae of western Central Asia, he tells us (1.
While both the Issedones and Massagetae are generally presumed to have been Iranian-speaking, Herodotus also attributes cannibalism to two tribes living immediately south of the Indus: the Kallatiai, who `devour (katesthiousi) their parents' (3.
The Achaemenids noted three distinct groups of Saka on their borders, while the Classical writers knew some of them as Arimaspians, Issedonians, Massagetae and Scythians.
In the AmuDarya delta region are the Saka cemetery and settlement of Chirik-Rabat (Trudnovskaya 1963), seen by some archaeologists as the homeland of the Massagetae (Yablonsky 1995a: 251, 252).