The AD patients have a distorted, hyper acute response to stress, based on the activation of the Th2 cells and mastocytes
, the dysfunction of the HPA and NNA and as a consequence, of the release and expression of neurogenic cutaneous inflammation mediators.
The pain induced by CFA causes the activation or release of various endogenous inflammatory mediators, such as histamine, serotonin, and kinins, through the degranulation of resident mastocytes
, in addition to an increase in prostaglandins caused by the activation of cyclooxygenases and cytokines, such as IL-1[beta] and TNF, that stimulate nociceptors [16,18, 24-26].
IgE can bind to eosinophils, mastocytes
, and macrophages, turning them into potent antitumor cells [102,116,117].
The IgE levels of patients with allergic diseases during an attack being statistically higher than the IgE levels during the interictal period is supported by the suggestion that IgE is a mediator of histamine release from mastocytes and, histamine, as a potent vasoactive agent, may play a role in the induction of migraine attacks.
In experimental studies, platelet aggregation, mastocyte degranulation and histamine secretion have been shown to occur after trigeminal ganglion stimulation (2).
The complex formed is recognized by mastocytes, eosinophils and neutrophils, which release the content of their granules (histamine, leukotrienes, prostaglandins and other mediators).
contortus have reported cellular infiltrations in the mucosa and regional lymph nodes, increases in T CD4+, T CD8+, T gamma delta ([gamma][delta]) and B lymphocytes, eosinophils and mastocytes [5, 11, 17, 75].
The hyperplasia of mastocytes in the abomasum mucosa is associated mainly with the presence of adult parasites and is greater in re-infections [10, 42], requiring a continuous stimulation on the part of parasitic antigens [4, 10].
It is known that activated mastocytes
contribute to higher expression of mRNA for IL-31 receptors [2, 3].
Mastocytes and microglia are efficient sensors of adverse endogenous or exogenous conditions of the CNS [2, 6].
Activation of TLRs triggers a cascade of intracellular events leading to activation of several transcription factors, including NF-[kappa]B, activator protein1 (AP-1), and IFN-regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) and -7 that regulate the expression of various cytokines and chemokines, responses that are performed in the CNS mainly by mastocytes and microglia.
In the adult brain, mastocytes are mainly found in leptomeninges  and thalamus close to the BBB [26, 27], but they are also present early in brain ontogeny [28, 29].