Mataram


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Mataram

 

two Indonesian states on Java, one existing from the eighth to the 11th century and the other from the 16th to the 18th century.

The first Mataram state, lasting from about 725 to 1042, was formed out of an appanage of the Kalinga state, which had disintegrated. It was an early feudal state with strong elements of Oriental despotism. The ruler was the secular and spiritual head of the state. The dynasties were Hindu; a Buddhist dynasty ruled the state only in the eighth and ninth centuries. The socioeconomic structure was based on the commune. Mataram maintained relations with other parts of the archipelago and with Cambodia, India, and China. In its efforts to expand its territory on Java and gain hegemony over the Malay Archipelago, Mataram clashed with the Sumatran state of Srivajaya at the turn of the 11th century. Airlangga, who came to the throne in 1019, attempted to unite all Java into a single state. Mataram and Srivajaya delineated their spheres of influence: Mataram’s rule was recognized in the central and eastern parts of the archipelago, and Srivajaya’s in the western part. In 1042, Airlangga divided Mataram into two states, Kediri and Djanggala. Many temples were built at the time of the first Mataram state, including Borobudur and Prambanan.

The second Mataram state (1575-1755) arose after a long period of feudal strife which began with the disintegration of Majapahit and the weakening of the coastal city states through Portuguese incursions. Mataram was a developed feudal state and the first large Javanese state ruled by a Muslim dynasty. The centralizing policy of its rulers Senapati (ruled 1575-1601) and Agung (ruled 1613-45) extended the state’s power over central Java as far as Bantam and eastern Java and brought about the destruction of the last Hindu states on Java. In 1641, Agung adopted the title of sultan. He fought unsuccessfully against the Dutch East India Company, besieging Batavia in 1619 and in 1628-29. In the 1670’s the Dutch intervened in the dynastic conflicts, helped the sultanate in its struggle against an uprising led by Trunodjoyo, and placed on the throne their protege, who ceded to the company several important regions of Mataram. The same period also saw a new anti-Dutch uprising led by Surapati, followed by three Javanese wars of succession (1703-05, 1719-23, 1749-55), in which the Dutch actively intervened. As a result Mataram lost the greater part of its possessions and became a vassal of the company. In 1755 it was divided into the states of Jogjakarta and Surakarta, both dependent on the Dutch.

IU. V. MARETIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Ministry of Foreign Affairs) held the 2nd workshop on the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration (GCM) Global Migration in Mataram, NTB, on 26- 27 August 2019.
The women's bodies were retrieved by residents after an hour-long search operation, and taken to a hospital in the provincial capital, Mataram.
"Both travelled to Lombok and were staying at a private villa in the Senggigi area, West Lombok," The Jakarta Post quoted Wiswananda, a spokesperson of the Mataram Search and Rescue Agency, as saying.
The streets were resplendent with the tricolour and reverberated with chants of 'Vande Mataram' and 'Jai Hind'.
Both were descendants of the renowned Sultan Agung, who founded the Mataram Dynasty that controlled much of seventeenth-century Java.
Now, during his appearance on India TV's show Vande Mataram, Nigam shared his opinion regarding the banning of local artists within India.
Vande Mataram!" Abhinandan was reportedly returned home to India at the Wagah border crossing, after Pakistani Prime Minister Imran Khan had confirmed his release as a gesture of peace between the two nations
Seven of the 14 crew members on board Multi Prima I ship, were rescued by Cahaya Abadi 208 ship, which was about 28 nautical miles north of the ship when it capsized due to billowing waves, head of Mataram SAR office I Nyoman Sidakarya told dpa.
The core topic under discussion was; why Muslims object to Vande Mataram being read and bowed to by all students in schools and all civil officials alike?
The tremor was also felt in the island's capital Mataram and on the neighbouring resort island of Bali.
The core topic under discussion was why Muslims object to "Vande Mataram" being read and bowed to by all students in schools and all civil officials alike?