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in the USSR, leave granted to women industrial, office, professional, and kolkhoz workers for a period of 56 calendar days before parturition and 56 calendar days after parturition, with payment of benefits for that period provided by state social insurance. In the event of abnormal childbirth or the birth of two or more children, the leave after parturition is extended to 70 calendar days. Women who adopt newborn children directly from a maternity home are granted leave from the day of adoption until the infant is 56 days old.
Women industrial, office, and professional workers (including those who are not members of trade unions) and members of kolkhozes have the right to maternity benefits regardless of their length of service. Benefits paid (since Dec. 1, 1973) equal total earnings, also regardless of length of service.
After maternity leave, a woman has the option of taking supplementary leave without pay until the infant reaches one year of age. Women who adopt infants directly from maternity homes also have the right to such leave. Women’s jobs are retained for them during this period, and leave time is included as part of total, uninterrupted length of service. Leave time is also included in calculations of length of experience in a particular field.