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Related to Mating effort: Mate desertion, Remating, double mating


The meeting of individuals for sexual reproduction.



the coupling of agricultural animals, a means of natural insemination of dams by sires. Mating takes place when the female is in heat. Animals are allowed to mate for the first time when they reach sexual maturity: stallions and mares at the age of three years, bulls and cows at 15 to 18 months, rams and ewes at 12 to 18 months, and boars and sows at ten to 12 months. Animals of early-maturing breeds are mated somewhat earlier than those of late-maturing breeds.

There are several types of mating. Voluntary coupling takes place in herds in which the males and females are kept together at pasture or in pens. Selective mating takes place when males kept separately from the females are paired with certain designated females. This type of mating makes possible selection, increased breeding use of the sire, and the obtaining of offspring during specific periods of the year. In animal breeding, natural mating is replaced by artificial insemination, a more efficient method of insemination.

References in periodicals archive ?
Under this model, the regular presence of a father through years of dependency (i.e., around age 5-7) would serve as a social indicator that social life affords consistent support and relative stability (and thus channel an offspring's later reproductive effort more toward parenting effort), whereas the absence of a father would connote greater social uncertainty (and thus channel an offspring's later reproductive effort more toward mating effort).
An attempt to assign a single label, such as identifying the presence or absence of paternal care or forcing the distinction between mating effort and parenting effort, across species masks the heterogeneous processes that collectively make up paternal care.
However, the investment by stepfathers can be viewed as mating effort, designed to entice sexual access to a child's mother in whom the man invests (e.g., Smuts & Gubemick, 1992).
As to why marital quality might decline among fathers, this can be viewed as part of a relationship dynamic in which a partner's attentions may shift from her engagement in mating effort to parenting effort, prioritizing her investment in their offspring over her partner.
The results of this comparative analysis support a mating effort rather than a paternal investment function of nuptial gifts as the more general pattern in bushcrickets.
Indeed, individual out-of-wedlock copulations have a higher fertilization rate than single mating efforts at home.