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Maurice(môr`ĭs), c.539–602, Byzantine emperor (582–602). He was a successful general when, on his deathbed, Tiberius II, his father-in-law and the successor of Justin II, proclaimed him emperor. He failed to halt the Lombards in Italy but ended (591) the war with Persia, restored Khosru II to the throne, and defeated the Avars. His strict discipline caused mutiny in the Danubian army, and he was obliged to flee. He was killed by order of the usurper Phocas, who was deposed (610), in turn, by Heraclius.
Maurice,1521–53, duke (1541–47) and elector (1547–53) of Saxony. A member of the Albertine branch of the ruling house of Saxony, he became duke of Albertine Saxony during the Protestant Reformation. Although a Protestant, he was more swayed by political than by religious motives. In 1546 he made an agreement with Holy Roman Emperor Charles VCharles V,
1500–1558, Holy Roman emperor (1519–58) and, as Charles I, king of Spain (1516–56); son of Philip I and Joanna of Castile, grandson of Ferdinand II of Aragón, Isabella of Castile, Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, and Mary of Burgundy.
..... Click the link for more information. by which he was to receive, in return for deserting the Protestants of the Schmalkaldic LeagueSchmalkaldic League
, alliance formed in 1531 at Schmalkalden by Protestant princes and delegates of free cities. It was created in response to the threat (1530) by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V to stamp out Lutheranism.
..... Click the link for more information. , the lands and title of his cousin, Elector John Frederick IJohn Frederick I,
1503–54, elector (1532–47) and duke (1547–54) of Saxony; last elector of the Ernestine branch of the house of Wettin. Like his father, John the Steadfast, whom he succeeded, John Frederick was a devout Lutheran.
..... Click the link for more information. of Saxony, ruler of the Ernestine portion of Saxony. He fought for Charles in the Schmalkaldic War and after the battle of Mühlberg (1547) received the electorate and a portion of his cousin's lands. However, Maurice's disgust with the emperor's ill-treatment of the Protestant leader Philip of HessePhilip of Hesse
, 1504–67, German nobleman, landgrave of Hesse (1509–67), champion of the Reformation. He is also called Philip the Magnanimous. Declared of age in 1518, he helped suppress the Peasants' War.
..... Click the link for more information. , and his still unsatisfied ambition, led him to turn against Charles. After raising an army for the execution of the ban against Magdeburg, with which he had been entrusted, he formed an alliance with Henry IIHenry II,
1519–59, king of France (1547–59), son of King Francis I. His robust physique contrasted with his weak and pliant disposition. Throughout his reign he was governed by Anne de Montmorency, by his mistress Diane de Poitiers, and by François and Charles
..... Click the link for more information. of France (1551). In the war that followed Maurice nearly captured Charles at Innsbruck. He forced Charles to free Philip and to conclude (1552) the Treaty of PassauPassau
, city (1994 pop. 51,041), Bavaria, SE Germany, at the confluence of the Danube, Inn, and Ilz rivers, near the border with Austria. It is a river port, rail junction, and industrial center; manufactures include beer, textiles, optical equipment, and tobacco.
..... Click the link for more information. . In 1553, Maurice was killed in a battle against Albert Alcibiades of Brandenburg-Kulmbach.
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1. 1521--53, duke of Saxony (1541--53) and elector of Saxony (1547--53). He was instrumental in gaining recognition of Protestantism in Germany
2. known as Maurice of Nassau. 1567--1625, prince of Orange and count of Nassau; the son of William the Silent, after whose death he led the United Provinces of the Netherlands in their struggle for independence from Spain (achieved by 1609)
3. Frederick Denison. 1805--72, English Anglican theologian and pioneer of Christian socialism
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