German Benedictines established major historical-critical projects (inspired by the French Maurists
), participated in learned societies, contributed to (and in some cases founded) academic journals, conducted scientific experiments, expressed disdain for Scholasticism and enthusiasm for the ideas of Locke, Wolff, and Kant, and embarked on theological experiments in ecumenism (Beda Mayr) and religious toleration (Benedict Werkmeister).
(7.) Johannes van Oort, "John Calvin and the Church Fathers," in The Reception of the Church Fathers in the West: From the Carolingians to the Maurists
The attempts of Mabillon and the Maurists
to construct a linear and secure system of graphic forms and thus to make palaeography into the first of the historical sciences; 2.
Second, the Maurists
"quam',(11) reproduced by Migne, offers no support for Bede's usage; a critical edition of the sermon may vindicate Bede.(12) Bede's second citation of Augustine in this section, 'Quotus quisque apparere et existere potest, qui non conuincatur esse peccator',(13) comes from a newly edited sermon, 'De uerbis euuangelii: Penitentiam agite, approprinquabit enim regnum celorum':(14) 'Quotus quisque apparet, exsistere potest qui non conuincatur esse peccator?'(15)
Translated from the almost identical texts edited by the Maurists
in PG 37.389-96 (used here as the reference edition), and by J B.
Only with manuals written by Robert Bellarmine and Antonio Possevino do historical concerns clearly win out over sectarian ones, pointing the way to a truly authentic historical method as later defined by Jean Mabillon and practiced by other Maurists
Haaugaard, "Renaissance Patristic Scholarship and Theology in Sixteenth-century England," Sixteenth Century Journal 10.3 (1979): 52-3; and Mark Vessey, "English Translations of the Latin Fathers, 1517-1611," The Reception of the Church Fathers in the West: From the Carolingians to the Maurists
McConica describes the movement of editors from the monastery to universities, carrying the tradition of the Bollandists, the Maurists
, and the Benedictines from devoted clergy to more secular disciples.
It was not used by the Maurists
in their edition, which has remained our standard text.