Marcel Mauss

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Mauss, Marcel

 

Born May 10, 1872, in Epinal; died Feb. 10, 1950, in Paris. French social anthropologist and sociologist.

Mauss held the chair in the history of the religion of noncivilized peoples at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes from 1900, and he was appointed professor of sociology at the Collège de France in 1931. Mauss was the nephew of E. Durkheim, worked closely with him, and was the leading exponent of his views. In the political sphere, Mauss supported the ideas of J. Jaurès and helped found the newspaper L’Humanité, for a time serving as its editorial secretary.

Although he adhered to Durkheim’s theory as a whole, Mauss modified some of its tenets. He did not accept Durkheim’s extreme antipsychologism and sought to reconcile sociology and psychology. In contrast to Durkheim, who viewed man as a dualistic being, embodying both an individual reality and a social reality that dominated the individual aspect, Mauss formulated the concept of the “total” man as the sum of his biological, psychological, and social traits. Mauss also placed greater emphasis on a systemic structural approach to the study of social phenomena than did Durkheim.

Mauss’ works are chiefly devoted to various aspects of life in archaic societies. His most important study is “The Gift: Forms and Functions of Exchange in Archaic Societies” (1925). In this work he shows, on the basis of extensive ethnographic and historical material, that until the development of commodity relations, the universal means of exchange was reciprocal gift-giving, in which the gifts, in theory voluntary, were in fact obligatory.

Mauss also advanced the idea of “total social facts,” stressing the comprehensive study of social facts and the identification of the most important social facts in particular social systems. These facts are at once economic, legal, religious, and aesthetic. Despite the vagueness and ambiguity of this idea, it had an influence on G. D. Gurvich and C. Lévi-Strauss. Mauss trained many specialists in ethnology, folkloristics, Indology, and historical psychology.

WORKS

Oeuvres, vols. 1–3, Paris, 1968–69.
Manuel d’ethnographie. Paris, 1947.
Sociologie et anthropologie, 4th ed. Paris, 1968.

REFERENCES

Cazeneuve, J. M. Mauss. Paris, 1968.
Cazeneuve, J. Sociologie de Marcel Mauss. Paris, 1968.

A. B. GOFMAN

References in periodicals archive ?
Gifts, according to French sociologist and anthropologist Marcel Mauss (1872-1950), are never truly free.
The idea of a "gift economy" comes from Marcel Mauss's essay The Gift, and it requires some clarification.
Saladin d'Anglure follows in the footsteps of Marcel Mauss and Claude Levi-Strauss, who was his colleague for seven years and provided him with advice until his death.
There is essential literature that inscribes these sociabilities in the phenomenon of gift, initially worked by Mauss (1) for less complex societies, but now also accepted to explain phenomena of contemporary societies.
O celebre Ensaio Sobre a Dadiva (2001 [1923-1924])--ED--, de Marcel Mauss (1872-1950), ainda suscita inumeras inquietacoes, porem, poderiamos resumir toda a discussao que nele e realizada a partir da afirmacao de que dar, receber e retribuir, constitui uma obrigacao fundamental das sociedades humanas, o que esse autor procurou demonstrar atraves de um estudo comparativo, no qual apontou para o fato de que esta obrigacao universalmente posta encontra-se organizada de forma singular em cada caso culturalmente localizado.
The rationale is provided by a formula of Marcel Mauss included in the Convivialist Manifesto as an explanation of the "mastered confrontation" principle.
The author employs Malinowski's and Mauss's work on the gift economy to frame the way in which the Karen perceive education, "as a gift that cannot be immediately reciprocated" (p.
'Technique' is taken as the definition forged by Mauss (2003[1909]:49-57; 1973 [1935]:75) through his work on prayer, magic, and body techniques, that is, actions which are 'efficacious' (according to the actor) and 'traditional'.
Ex-spy Werner Mauss, 77, was fined [euro]20,000 and handed a suspended term for stashing cash in offshore accounts and shortchanging the state of millions in taxes.
Werner Mauss, whose career spanned 40 years, says on his website that he was involved in smashing more than 100 criminal gangs and in the arrests of around 2,000 individuals.