Katibat Ma wara' an-Nahr is also known as Mawarannahr
, in English as Transoxiana, or in Arabic as Bilad ma-Wara'al-Nahar and translates to "land beyond the [Oxus] river." This is the ancient name used for the portion of Central Asia corresponding approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan, and southwest Kazakhstan.
Indeed, the Mongol invasions drained the populations of Mawarannahr, Khurasan, and much of Iran.
The first is the process of Islamization of the non-Muslim populations in Mawarannahr (between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya rivers in Central Asia) and Khurasan (modern eastern Iran and part of western Afghanistan) after the Mongol invasions.
The work provides an excellent understanding of the rivalry between the Yasaviya and the Naqshbandiya, but it focuses on Mawarannahr and ignores other regions of Yasaviya activity.
In this manner, he attempted to appease the 'ulama' in the cities of Mawarannahr, even though the Sufis within the empire were of greater importance in legitimizing his rule.
The thirteen other documents in the collection are related to Ahrar's property and that of his descendants in Mawarannahr; these include eight deeds of purchase, three court records and two royal decrees.
The first half of the text enumerates the properties in Mawarannahr dedicated to the maintenance of Khwajah Ahrar's gravesite; the second half appears to describe properties that Ahrar had evidently acquired in and around Kabul, which he had converted to waqf to support a madrasah and associated mosque and to provide income and housing for his descendants.
Even if the name of every individual who is mentioned in the text as owning property adjacent to the many separate waqf holdings in Mawarannahr is identified, it may still be difficult to date the original endowment, unless the death dates of these people can also be determined.
In the 1540s there were two major powers in Mawarannahr and central Afghanistan, the Uzbek appanages of Mawarannahr and Balkh and the Timurids of central and eastern Afghanistan.(6) A third, the Safavids, controlled most of the Iranian plateau including Khurasan, but were not directly involved in Naqshbandi affairs, except as persecutors of the order in Iran.(7) In 1546 Uzbeks controlled Samarqand, the former capital of Timur and his descendants, Tashkent and Bukhara and the environs of these cities, and Balkh in northern Afghanistan.
If nothing else the fact that document seventeen was preserved in Mawarannahr indicates that Uzbek Samarqand continued to be the official religious and administrative center of the Ahrari Naqshbandis, whatever their earlier relations with Uzbek khans.
The IMU could also provide the Islamic State with a platform to launch attacks in Central Asia (37) and potentially establish another regional affiliate, which could be called the Islamic State of Mawarannahr, (38) though these are less likely options.
The predominantly Uzbek Imam Bukhari Battalion in Syria also calls themselves Mawarannahr Mujohidlari.