Max Ernst


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Ernst, Max

(mäks ĕrnst) 1891–1976, German painter. After World War I, Ernst joined the DadaDada
or Dadaism
, international nihilistic movement among European artists and writers that lasted from 1916 to 1922. Born of the widespread disillusionment engendered by World War I, it originated in Zürich with a 1916 party at the Cabaret Voltaire and the
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 movement in Paris and then became a founder of surrealismsurrealism
, literary and art movement influenced by Freudianism and dedicated to the expression of imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the conscious control of reason and free of convention.
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. Apart from the medium of collagecollage
[Fr.,=pasting], technique in art consisting of cutting and pasting natural or manufactured materials to a painted or unpainted surface—hence, a work of art in this medium.
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, for which he is well known, Ernst developed other devices to express his fantastic vision. In frottage he rubbed black chalk on paper held against various materials such as leaves, wood, and fabrics to achieve bizarre effects. He was also the author of several volumes of collage novels. A note of whimsy often characterizes his dreamlike landscapes while other works reveal an allegorical imagination. Two Children Are Threatened by a Nightingale and several other works are in the Museum of Modern Art, New York City.

Bibliography

See his Beyond Painting (1948); studies by J. Russell (1967) and U. M. Schneede (1973); R. Rainwater, Max Ernst, Beyond Surrealism: An Exhibition of the Artist's Books and Prints (1986); W. A. Camfield, ed., Max Ernst: Dada and the Dawn of Surrealism (1993); W. Spies, ed., Max Ernst: A Retrospective (2005).

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Ernst, Max (Maximillian)

(1891–1976) painter; born in Brühl, Germany. He studied philosophy at the University of Bonn (1911), traveled widely, lived in the U.S.A. during the 1940s, and settled in France (1953). A surrealist and Dadaist, he used the subconscious as his inspiration, as seen in Oedipus Rex (1921) and Polish Rider (1954).
The Cambridge Dictionary of American Biography, by John S. Bowman. Copyright © Cambridge University Press 1995. Reproduced with permission.
References in periodicals archive ?
All these [photos], except some which were slotted, are on Max Ernst's visit here from the time he arrived to the time at the airport."
In a similar manner, the computer was able to sort Surrealist painters Salvador Dali, Giorgio de chirico, and Max Ernst into the same category, and it grouped Post-Impressionists like Paul Gauguin and Paul Cezanne together.
He suggested subjects for us, and said I might like to write about German painter Max Ernst. His reasoning was that Ernst did a lot of drugs and made trippy art and that seemed like my thing.
Included are selected works by artists in Ray and Miller's circle in Paris, including paintings by Pablo Picasso, Max Ernst, Roland Penrose, and Dora Maar and a small sculpture by Alexander Calder.
Campiglio cites among his creative influences his Italian-American background; surrealist writing and artists such as Rene Magritte and Max Ernst; the beat poets; and cut-ups and collages in the spirit of William S.
"I now wish I had bought some of his works!" He counts Lowry as one of his inspirations, along with Van Gogh, Monet, Dali, Magritte and Max Ernst.
(11) The first approach, however, requires speculation on the visual and mental impact of camouflage, as experienced in the war landscape, on surrealist art, and I consider this through the case of Max Ernst.
Nine of them are in English, and discuss theorizing about myth in Britain and Germany from 19th-century to the 20th, the poetry and politics of corruption in Yeats and Lawrence, myths of conspiracy and infiltration from Dickens to Thomas Mann, the end of the world and the beginning of aesthetics in Hogarth and Jean Paul, Blake's and Lavater's search for divine likeness, Max Ernst and Leonore with myths of Anglo-German surrealism, the dialectic of modernity in English and German literary thought around 1800, mythical Aryan masculinity and British travel writing about Germany during the 1930s, and rationality in myth and science.