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see teethteeth,
hard, calcified structures embedded in the bone of the jaws of vertebrates that perform the primary function of mastication. Humans and most other mammals have a temporary set of teeth, the deciduous, or milk, teeth; in humans, they usually erupt between the 6th and 24th
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One of the structures found in the mouth of most vertebrates which, in their most primitive form, were conical and were usually used for seizing, cutting up, or chewing food, or for all three of these purposes. The basic tissues that make up the vertebrate tooth are enamel, dentin, cementum, and pulp (see illustration).

Structure of a toothenlarge picture
Structure of a tooth

Enamel is the hardest tissue in the body because of the very high concentration, about 96%, of mineral salts. The remaining 4% is water and organic matter. The enamel has no nerve supply, although it is nourished to a very slight degree from the dentin it surrounds. The fine, microscopic hexagonal rods (prisms) of apatite which make up the enamel are held together by a cementing substance.

Dentin, a very bonelike tissue, makes up the bulk of a tooth, consisting of 70% of such inorganic material as calcium and phosphorus, and 30% of water and organic matter, principally collagen. The rich nerve supply makes dentin a highly sensitive tissue; this sensitivity serves no obvious physiological function.

Cement is a calcified tissue, a type of modified bone less hard than dentin, which fastens the roots of teeth to the alveolus, the bony socket into which the tooth is implanted. A miscellaneous tissue, consisting of nerves, fibrous tissue, lymph, and blood vessels, known as the pulp, occupies the cavity of the tooth surrounded by dentin.

The dentition of therian mammals, at least primitively, consists of four different kinds of teeth. The incisors (I) are usually used for nipping and grasping; the canines (C) serve for stabbing or piercing; the premolars (Pm) grasp, slice, or function as additional molars; and the molars (M) do the chewing, cutting, and grinding of the food. Primitively the placentals have 40 teeth and the marsupials 50.

In therian mammals, probably because of the intricacies and vital importance of tooth occlusion, only part of the first (or “milk”) dentition is replaced. This second, or permanent, dentition is made up of incisors, canines, and premolars; as a rule only one premolar is replaced in marsupials. Although the molars erupt late in development and are permanent, that is, not replaced, they are part of the first, or deciduous, dentition.


One of a series of carved ornaments, typically a pyramidal shape or a four-petal flower, usually set in a concave molding band; used in the Romanesque and Gothic Revival styles. See also: Ornament


One of the hard bony structures supported by the jaws in mammals and by other bones of the mouth and pharynx in lower vertebrates serving principally for prehension and mastication.
(design engineering)
One of the regular projections on the edge or face of a gear wheel.
An angular projection on a tool or other implement, such as a rake, saw, or comb.
(graphic arts)
The coarse or abrasive quality of a paper or a painting ground that assists in the application of charcoal, pastels, or paint.
A paper texture that holds ink more readily.
(invertebrate zoology)
Any of various sharp, horny, chitinous, or calcareous processes on or about any part of an invertebrate that functions like or resembles vertebrate jaws.


1. In a paint film, a fine texture imparted either by pigments or by the abrasives used in sanding; this texture provides a good base for the adhesion of a subsequent coat of paint.
2. A dogtooth, 2.


1. any of various bonelike structures set in the jaws of most vertebrates and modified, according to the species, for biting, tearing, or chewing
2. any of various similar structures in invertebrates, occurring in the mouth or alimentary canal
3. any of the various small indentations occurring on the margin of a leaf, petal, etc.
4. any one of a number of uniform projections on a gear, sprocket, rack, etc., by which drive is transmitted
References in periodicals archive ?
queenslandicus, with two contiguous large dentary teeth followed by two adjacent large maxillary teeth (D4, D5, Mx1, Mx2) differs considerably from the condition seen in MP111209-1, where the dental sequence shows only two non-contiguous large teeth (D4, Mx1).
A comparison of the efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine in achieving pulpal anesthesia in maxillary teeth with irreversible pulpitis.
As to the location of the IOF in relation to the maxillary teeth, it is important to note that the IOF was most frequently located in a vertical plane passing through the tip of the buccal cusp of the maxillary second premolar tooth (37.5% and 55.9% on the right and left side, resp.) followed by a position in between the first and second upper premolar teeth (34.4% and 26.5% on the right and left side, resp.).
The maxillary sinus septa according to neighborhood with the posterior maxillary teeth was divided into three categories: anterior region, between the mesial and distal aspects of the second premolar root; middle between distal aspects of second premolar and second molar; and posterior, distal aspect of the root of the second molar (6, 9, 17).
The maxillary teeth were notched as advocated by Frankel.
It is important to lift the upper lip and examine the maxillary teeth where salivary flow is reduced and enamel loss is more likely (Wagner & Oskouian, 2008).
This is due to: 1) cephalad insertion of the laryngoscope blade into the mouth so that the line of sight is more vertical, and 2) similar to short mandibular distance (or 'absolute' retrognathia) (Figure 2A), a 'relative' retrognathia (Figure 2B) is produced because prominent upper front incisors require greater protrusion of the mandible to get anterior to the maxillary teeth. This extra subluxation at the TMJs may provide the straight line of vision required for successful laryngoscopy.
Maxillary teeth 1 to 4, mean 2.1 teeth (Table 6); teeth very small, compressed, with 2 to 5 rounded cusps, central cusp not pronounced, holotype with 1-2 maxillary teeth.
Further intraoral inspection reveals an extremely narrowed, high-arched palate, with numerous malposed maxillary teeth. (See: Fig.
In class III malocclusion, the mandibular teeth are anterior or mesial to the maxillary teeth. (2,3) These molar relationships can affect the occlusion of the anterior teeth in predictable but not absolute ways.
Her exam is remarkable for mild maxillary sinus pressure tenderness bilaterally and tenderness to palpation of the maxillary teeth. She may have acute bacterial sinusitis, based upon clinical criteria.