Maximilian


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Maximilian,

1832–67, emperor of Mexico (1864–67). As the Austrian archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, he was denied a share in the imperial government by his reactionary brother, Emperor Francis JosephFrancis Joseph
or Franz Joseph,
1830–1916, emperor of Austria (1848–1916), king of Hungary (1867–1916), nephew of Ferdinand, who abdicated in his favor.
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. Maximilian served as commander in chief of the Austrian fleet and was governor-general of Lombardo-Venetia (1857–59), but he found no outlet for his dreams of liberal reform. When Mexican conservatives negotiated with Napoleon IIINapoleon III
(Louis Napoleon Bonaparte), 1808–73, emperor of the French (1852–70), son of Louis Bonaparte (see under Bonaparte, family), king of Holland. Early Life
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 to found a Mexican empire, Maximilian was persuaded to accept the crown. He and his wife, CarlottaCarlotta,
Span. Carlota , 1840–1927, empress of Mexico, daughter of Leopold I of Belgium, christened Marie Charlotte Amélie. She married (1857) Maximilian, archduke of Austria and accompanied him when he went to Mexico as emperor (1864).
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, left their palace near Trieste and sailed (1864) to Mexico.

The empire was a failure from the start. Maximilian, who had no real understanding of Mexico, found most of the country hostile to him and loyal to Benito JuárezJuárez, Benito
, 1806–72, Mexican liberal statesman and national hero. Revered by Mexicans as one of their greatest political figures, Juárez, with great moral courage and honesty, upheld the civil law and opposed the privileges of the clericals and the army.
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. He alienated the conservatives by his liberal tendencies and others of his supporters by his decree (1865) ordering the summary execution of all followers of Juárez. Indeed, Maximilian's tenure rested solely on French soldiers, who drove Juárez and his liberal army to the north. The European monarchs, except Napoleon III, were lukewarm. The United States, irked by this violation of the Monroe DoctrineMonroe Doctrine,
principle of American foreign policy enunciated in President James Monroe's message to Congress, Dec. 2, 1823. It initially called for an end to European intervention in the Americas, but it was later extended to justify U.S.
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, was frankly hostile and was prevented from interfering only by the American Civil War.

When affairs in France and the cessation of the Civil War impelled Napoleon III to withdraw (1866–67) the French troops from Mexico, the flimsy fabric of the empire dissolved. For a time Maximilian considered abdication, but he was irresolute. In 1866, Empress Carlotta went to Europe and vainly sought aid from Napoleon III and the pope. Maximilian, in desperation, assumed personal command of his forces, then mostly concentrated at Querétaro. There, after a siege (March–May, 1867), he was captured and shot. He wrote Aus meinem Leben (1865, tr. Recollections of My Life, 1868).

Bibliography

See J. Musser, The Establishment of Maximilian's Empire in Mexico (1918, repr. 1976); E. Corti, Maximilian and Charlotte of Mexico (1928, repr. 1968); Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico: Memoirs of His Private Secretary, José Luis Blasio (tr. and ed. by R. H. Murray, 1934).

Maximilian

 

In the Holy Roman Empire:

Maximilian I. Born Mar. 22, 1459, in Wiener Neustadt; died Jan. 12, 1519, in Wels. Emperor from 1493; Austrian archduke. Member of the Hapsburg dynasty. Son and heir of Emperor Frederick III.

Maximilian I acquired the Netherlands and Franche-Comte through his marriage to Mary of Burgundy in 1477. He made use of marital unions to secure the Spanish, Hungarian, and Bohemian thrones for his successors. He initiated the real unification of the Hapsburgs’ Austrian holdings and the centralization of their administration. On the other hand, the efforts at imperial reform undertaken under Maximilian I (the resolutions of the German imperial diets of 1495 and 1500 on the creation of empire-wide judicial and administrative institutions, the proclamation of a Landfriede, etc.) proved to have little effect because of the surviving absolute power of the princes. Defeated in what was called the Swabian War against the Swiss (1499), Maximilian I was obliged to recognize the definitive separation of Switzerland from the empire. Also unsuccessful was his intervention in the Italian Wars of 1494-1559. Diplomatic relations with the Russian state were established under Maximilian I.

Maximilian II. Born Aug. 1, 1527, in Vienna; died Oct. 12, 1576, in Regensburg. Emperor from 1564; Austrian archduke. Son of Emperor Ferdinand I.

Upon the division of lands among the members of the Hapsburg house in 1564, Maximilian II received Upper and Lower Austria and the crown of Bohemia and Hungary. Depending completely on Austrian, Bohemian, and Hungarian feudal lords in financial questions, he was forced to make substantial concessions to them. Under Maximilian II, Protestantism spread widely in the Hapsburg lands.

Maximilian

full name Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph. 1832--67, archduke of Austria and emperor of Mexico (1864--67). After the French had partially conquered Mexico, he was offered the throne but was defeated and shot by the Mexicans under Ju?rez
References in classic literature ?
"Be it so, then, my father," he said, extending his hand to Morrel, "die in peace, my father; I will live." Morrel was about to cast himself on his knees before his son, but Maximilian caught him in his arms, and those two noble hearts were pressed against each other for a moment.
If, on the contrary, I die, remember, Maximilian, my corpse is that of an honest but unfortunate man.
"Will you not see my sister once more?" asked Maximilian. A last but final hope was concealed by the young man in the effect of this interview, and therefore he had suggested it.
"Have you no particular commands to leave with me, my father?" inquired Maximilian in a faltering voice.
"Father," cried Maximilian, "how could you say the Pharaon was lost?
THE NOTABLE BRAIN OF MAXIMILIAN PONDER BY JW IRONMONGER WEIDENFELD & NICOLSON, pounds 12.99 Maximilian Zygmer Quentin Kavadis John Cabwhill Ponder aims to document every memory he has ever had, with the ambition of aiding science's understanding of the human brain in this exceptional debut from JW Ironmonger.
BORO have made an official approach to Bayern Munich for their central defender Maximilian Haas.
"Just because you study well and know the material does not mean that you will do well on the test," said site founder Maximilian Hart.
It wasn't until his sixth year, Maximilian's father said, that the rachitic Otmar began to walk, before that he used to drag himself along the floor of his parents' house.
As Maximilian put it, "I am a Christian and cannot fight." As Martin of Tours put it, "I am a soldier of Christ; it is not lawful for me to fight." As Tertullian put it, "When Christ disarmed Peter in the garden, he disarmed all Christians." As Lactantius put it, "It can never be Lawful for a righteous man to go to war, since his warfare is in righteousness itself." As Cyprian put it, "Christians are not allowed to kill, but they must be willing to be put to death." These were men who--unlike Bush--chose their religion instead of inheriting it.
Such was the fate of the Archduke Maximilian of Hapsburg.
Milestone events include the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo in 1848, which meant handing over much of Texas, New Mexico, California, Arizona and bits of Utah and Colorado to the United States; the execution of Emperor Maximilian in 1867; the drawing up and signing of Mexico's Constitution in 1916-17 during the Revolution, and the founding in 1929 of the National Revolutionary Party--the Institutional Revolutionary Party's (PRI) predecessor.