(redirected from Maximillian)
Also found in: Dictionary.


1832–67, emperor of Mexico (1864–67). As the Austrian archduke Ferdinand Maximilian, he was denied a share in the imperial government by his reactionary brother, Emperor Francis JosephFrancis Joseph
or Franz Joseph,
1830–1916, emperor of Austria (1848–1916), king of Hungary (1867–1916), nephew of Ferdinand, who abdicated in his favor.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Maximilian served as commander in chief of the Austrian fleet and was governor-general of Lombardo-Venetia (1857–59), but he found no outlet for his dreams of liberal reform. When Mexican conservatives negotiated with Napoleon IIINapoleon III
(Louis Napoleon Bonaparte), 1808–73, emperor of the French (1852–70), son of Louis Bonaparte (see under Bonaparte, family), king of Holland. Early Life
..... Click the link for more information.
 to found a Mexican empire, Maximilian was persuaded to accept the crown. He and his wife, CarlottaCarlotta,
Span. Carlota , 1840–1927, empress of Mexico, daughter of Leopold I of Belgium, christened Marie Charlotte Amélie. She married (1857) Maximilian, archduke of Austria and accompanied him when he went to Mexico as emperor (1864).
..... Click the link for more information.
, left their palace near Trieste and sailed (1864) to Mexico.

The empire was a failure from the start. Maximilian, who had no real understanding of Mexico, found most of the country hostile to him and loyal to Benito JuárezJuárez, Benito
, 1806–72, Mexican liberal statesman and national hero. Revered by Mexicans as one of their greatest political figures, Juárez, with great moral courage and honesty, upheld the civil law and opposed the privileges of the clericals and the army.
..... Click the link for more information.
. He alienated the conservatives by his liberal tendencies and others of his supporters by his decree (1865) ordering the summary execution of all followers of Juárez. Indeed, Maximilian's tenure rested solely on French soldiers, who drove Juárez and his liberal army to the north. The European monarchs, except Napoleon III, were lukewarm. The United States, irked by this violation of the Monroe DoctrineMonroe Doctrine,
principle of American foreign policy enunciated in President James Monroe's message to Congress, Dec. 2, 1823. It initially called for an end to European intervention in the Americas, but it was later extended to justify U.S.
..... Click the link for more information.
, was frankly hostile and was prevented from interfering only by the American Civil War.

When affairs in France and the cessation of the Civil War impelled Napoleon III to withdraw (1866–67) the French troops from Mexico, the flimsy fabric of the empire dissolved. For a time Maximilian considered abdication, but he was irresolute. In 1866, Empress Carlotta went to Europe and vainly sought aid from Napoleon III and the pope. Maximilian, in desperation, assumed personal command of his forces, then mostly concentrated at Querétaro. There, after a siege (March–May, 1867), he was captured and shot. He wrote Aus meinem Leben (1865, tr. Recollections of My Life, 1868).


See J. Musser, The Establishment of Maximilian's Empire in Mexico (1918, repr. 1976); E. Corti, Maximilian and Charlotte of Mexico (1928, repr. 1968); Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico: Memoirs of His Private Secretary, José Luis Blasio (tr. and ed. by R. H. Murray, 1934).



In the Holy Roman Empire:

Maximilian I. Born Mar. 22, 1459, in Wiener Neustadt; died Jan. 12, 1519, in Wels. Emperor from 1493; Austrian archduke. Member of the Hapsburg dynasty. Son and heir of Emperor Frederick III.

Maximilian I acquired the Netherlands and Franche-Comte through his marriage to Mary of Burgundy in 1477. He made use of marital unions to secure the Spanish, Hungarian, and Bohemian thrones for his successors. He initiated the real unification of the Hapsburgs’ Austrian holdings and the centralization of their administration. On the other hand, the efforts at imperial reform undertaken under Maximilian I (the resolutions of the German imperial diets of 1495 and 1500 on the creation of empire-wide judicial and administrative institutions, the proclamation of a Landfriede, etc.) proved to have little effect because of the surviving absolute power of the princes. Defeated in what was called the Swabian War against the Swiss (1499), Maximilian I was obliged to recognize the definitive separation of Switzerland from the empire. Also unsuccessful was his intervention in the Italian Wars of 1494-1559. Diplomatic relations with the Russian state were established under Maximilian I.

Maximilian II. Born Aug. 1, 1527, in Vienna; died Oct. 12, 1576, in Regensburg. Emperor from 1564; Austrian archduke. Son of Emperor Ferdinand I.

Upon the division of lands among the members of the Hapsburg house in 1564, Maximilian II received Upper and Lower Austria and the crown of Bohemia and Hungary. Depending completely on Austrian, Bohemian, and Hungarian feudal lords in financial questions, he was forced to make substantial concessions to them. Under Maximilian II, Protestantism spread widely in the Hapsburg lands.


full name Ferdinand Maximilian Joseph. 1832--67, archduke of Austria and emperor of Mexico (1864--67). After the French had partially conquered Mexico, he was offered the throne but was defeated and shot by the Mexicans under Ju?rez
References in periodicals archive ?
Despite a 5lb penalty for his Group 3 success, Russian Soul, the mount of Shane Foley, sets the standard in tonight's race, when the opposition will include British raider Sir Maximillian, winner of the competitive Rockingham Handicap at the Curragh before filling seventh spot behind Intrinsic in the Stewards Cup at Goodwood.
A second man, Maximillian Surrey, 20, was also accused of robbery after it was alleged he had got in the same car as Brennan as he fled.
With: Megan Dunlop, Mike Le Blanc, Marla MacLean, Kenneth Harrington, Marcia Connolly, Shannon Cunningham, Vanessa Maximillian, Bruce Godfree, Tara Doyle, Lise Cormier, Connie Eaton, Harvey Seasons.
The plot, for what it's worth, goes like this: A vampire, Maximillian, pitches up in the Big Apple in search of the perfect mate.
Maximillian Surrey, 20, and Paul Brennan, 23, are alleged to have been part of a "joint enterprise" to hold-up the Lifestyles store, in Horrocks Close, Netherton.
Maximillian Kolbe Church, 5801 N.Kanan Rd., Westlake Village, CA.
TV Commentator Tony Hastings Judge Maximillian Meltzer Doug Katsaros Kevin Bursteter Edward Staudenmayer Priscilla Vanderhosen Susan Mansur Eve Bursteter Kate Levering Arlene Murphy Lauren Ward Martin Murphy Michael McGrath Winona Shook Blair Ross Aaron Bates Robert Bartley Stenographer Donya Lane Lamarr Frank Gravis Juror Donna Kelly Musical numbers: "Courtroom Cantata," "Southern Comfort," "Thanks to Mom," "Why Did You Have to Be a Lawyer?," "I Get Tired," "That's a Woman," "Cottage by the Sea," "In the Name of Love," "I Want the Best for Him," "Don't Mess Around With Your Mother-in-Law, Good Day, She Makes Me Laugh," "Rio," "At My Side," "No Further Questions, Please," "You're Good for Me," "Guilty, Ain't He Cute?," "Ain't She Cute?," "Exactly Like You."
Tim Pitt saddled his first winner in Ireland, from only his second runner, when Maximillian, ridden by Steve Donohoe, beat compatriot Caspian Prince in the [euro]100,000 Rockingham Handicap.
She was most proud of her nine grandchildren: Andrea, Eric and Adrienne Lafleche; Paul, Carolyn and Luke Petrowski; and Karl Douglass, Maximillian, and Annamarie Mueller.
Maximillian Surrey, 20, and Paul Brennan, 23, are alleged to have been part of a joint enterprise to hold up the Lifestyles store on Horrocks Close, Netherton, last September.
She leaves her daughter, Robyn, wife of Jay Pelletz of Holden; four grandchildren, Allison, Maximillian, Harrison and Madison Pelletz and her brother, Paul Young of Worcester.
Eve's fourth album Lip Lock is out next month, and in the 11 years since its predecessor, Eve-Olution, she has developed a movie career, and set up base in London with multi-millionaire Gumball Rally founder Maximillian Cooper.