Mazhit Gafuri

The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Gafuri, Mazhit Nurganievich


(also Gabdulmazhit Nurganievich Gafuri). Born July 20 (Aug. 1), 1880, in the village of Elem-Karanovo, in present-day Gafuri Raion, Bashkir ASSR; died Oct. 28, 1934, in Ufa. Soviet Bashkir and Tatar poet; the founder of Soviet Bashkir literature; People’s Poet of the Bashkir ASSR (1923).

Gafuri appeared as a writer and educator on the eve of the Revolution of 1905-07 with the collection of poetry Siberian Railroad (1904) and a short story, “A Life of Penury” (1903). In 1905, Gafuri participated in student disturbances in Kazan. His writing took a revolutionary and a democratic nature. During the years of reaction, his collections of poetry My Young Life (1906) and Love of Nation (1907) were confiscated; in 1911 he was put under police surveillance. Gafuri welcomed the Great October Revolution (the collection Red Banner, 1917). His best works were produced in the Soviet period: the narrative poem The Worker (1921); Red Star, a play about the Civil War and the building of a new life; the stories Black Faces (1927), on woman’s disfranchisement before the revolution, and Stages of Life (1930), on molding the minds of the masses during the years of war and revolution; and the autobiographical In the Poet’s Gold Fields (1931). Gafuri, one of the founders of a national children’s literature, also wrote publicistic works.


Saylanma äsärlär, Kazan, 1954-55. Vols. 1-2.
Äthärdhär, vols. 1-6. Ufa, 1954-57.
In Russian translation:
Izbrannoe. Ufa, 1955.
Povesti. Moscow, 1952.
Stupeni zhizni. Moscow, 1958.


Istoriia bashkirskoi sovetskoi literatury: Ocherki, part 1. Ufa, 1963. Pages 89-157.
Baykov, S. Khalïq shagire Mäzhit Gafuri. Ufa, 1940.
Mäzhit Gafuri turahïnda zamandashtarï. Ufa, 1961.
Ramazanov, G. Mäzhit Gafuri izhadï. Ufa, 1965.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.