The plotting of the clustering analysis of the brooches examined in the present study shows that fibulae found in the Lower Danube region have multiple finks to brooches from distant areas, including Mazuria and Asia Minor (see Fig.
600, in Crimea, (112) Hungary (113) and Mazuria. (114) The three burials with "Slavic" bow fibulae may thus be viewed as the southernmost known examples of the early-seventh-century female burial fashion.
Later contacts with Mazuria and Eastern Prussia are also documented for sites in eastern and southern Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine, which produced "Slavic" bow fibulae (Curta 2001, pp.
Mazuria further produced evidence of local production of bow fibulae (Dabrowski 1980).
Berlin asked General Superintendent Carl Moll to launch an investigation into the political activities of "his" pastors, but a concerned von Muhler also looked for information about Mazuria from sources other than the Provincial Consistory.
(31) Although counterrevolutionary Protestants founded the society to battle secularism and socialism in urban centers, Berlin believed it could lend a hand in rural Mazuria because Catholicism was undermining the conservative tie between the Protestant Church and monarch in much the same way that contemporary nonreligious agendas were attempting to reformat traditional society.
Catholic practices, heathen customs, and superstition continued to play a major role in nineteenth-century Mazuria. They were proof of the church's failure for Oldenberg who, like Carl Moll, concluded that the Mazurians were not typical nineteenth-century Prussian Protestants.
According to contemporary accounts, however, the Lutheran clergy confronted an almost impossible task because they were not working with a Catholic population but with a "heathen people only touched by the outward forms of Catholicism." (37) After carefully documenting the church's struggle to maintain a bilingual ministry in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Oldenberg turned to the Mazuria that he observed in 1865.
While other regions of the Prussian kingdom improved their transportation networks, urbanized, and industrialized, Mazuria remained an isolated agrarian region.
Oldenberg believed that the Inner Mission Society could and needed to duplicate this experience throughout Mazuria because Bible study insulated the people from the message of the priests.
For Oldenberg and the German clergy, unacceptable practices in 1865 were the residual Catholic and non-Christian observances that still commanded enormous respect in Protestant Mazuria. These included prayers to saints, repetitious intercessory prayers, the use of charms, participation in pilgrimages, and attendance at Mass, which Oldenberg documented thoroughly in the section entitled "Superstitions and Catholicism." (55) The fourteen pages devoted to what he believed was non-Protestant behavior were intended to convince Berlin of the church's failure and the need for intervention if it wished to prevent the Catholic Church from gaining the upper hand in the region.
The Reformation in Mazuria may have contended with the Christianization of a pagan people, but it was painfully obvious that after three hundred years of preaching and religious instruction, the Protestant perspective had made little impact on the Polish-speaking Mazurians.