Amdo(redirected from Mdo-smad)
the obsolete name for the northeast section of the Tibetan highlands, along the upper Yellow River in the Tsinghai Province of the People’s Republic of China. It is a mountainous, woodless area, altitudes 3,500–5,000 m, with sparse dry steppe vegetation on crude skeletal soils. Conifer forests appear on the northern slopes. There are thickets of shrubs and meadows along the rivers and small areas of irrigated farmland. The Russian traveler P. K. Kozlov described this area while on an expedition during 1907–09.