Hamadan was the center of the Median Empire
over 2,500 years ago, and rates as the first capital.
The Persian and the Median Empire
taken together are also known as the Medo-Persian Empire, which encompassed the combined territories of several earlier empires.
started with the advent of urban civilization in Iran which was from 900 BC until 700 BC.
Also, the geographical area where the corpses were discovered is situated at the heart of what was the Median Empire.
After the Median Empire became the Medo-Persian Empire in 550 BCE, the Medes' culture, way of governance, and language were adapted by the Persian rulers and the Medes remained in honor and positions in the empire.
The question of whether or not there was truly a "Median Empire" underlies the volume.
Those articles that receive most attention here are those that impinge most immediately upon the overarching question of the Median Empire and its historical place in the succession ("continuity") of empires from Assyria to Persia, as it has been perceived in modern scholarship.
Lanfranchi's "The Assyrian Expansion in the Zagros and Local Ruling Elites," provides the most compelling case for jettisoning all pre-conceived notions of a Median Empire or even of a unified Median entity capable of sustained, imperial activity.
He believes that he's found Pteria, the ancient ruined city of the Median Empire
on Kerkenes Dag, a low granite mountain that overlooks the Cappadocian Plain in central Turkey.
Assyria's fall was sudden, as it succumbed to a combined assault by a new Median empire, rebelling Babylonians, and tribal Scythians in 612.
Assyria's later fall can be understood as the result of balancing and bandwagoning; its replacement by Persia was caused by "hiding." When the Median Empire emerged as a new great power in the seventh century B.C., it balanced with a rebelling Babylonia to end Assyrian hegemony.
Neither the Chaldean nor the Median empires