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in the armed forces of the USSR, a series of measures taken by the military medical service to evacuate the wounded and sick from the field of battle or from a focus of mass destruction to medical facilities, called collecting stations, which provide interim medical treatment. The need for medical evacuation arises when conditions at the focus of destruction sharply limit the opportunities for immediate treatment, which is the most advisable from a medical point of view. Medical evacuation is an emergency procedure that affects the health of the evacuee, since it disturbs his rest and interrupts continuous medical care. As a result, medical evacuation is not conducted unnecessarily and is carried out with the utmost care.
Because its purpose is the timely provision of qualified and specialized medical care, medical evacuation involves the rapid transfer of the sick and injured to the evacuation stages where, according to the circumstances and the medical indications, patients will receive the most efficient treatment. Special medical transports and other available means, such as supply transports, are used for the evacuation.
Medical evacuation is closely linked to triage, which is the sorting of evacuees according to the medical indications and contraindications for evacuation, the type of transport to be used, the order of evacuation, and the destination. Coordination of transportation includes such measures as examining the evacuees before departure, adjusting bandages, and administering painkillers. When used to carry the injured and the sick, supply vehicles must be made warm and must be equipped with soft bedding and additional shock-absorbing devices. These and other modifications ensure relatively comfortable traveling accommodations for the evacuees.
Medical evacuation is a vital element not only of troop medical support, but also of the public assistance provided by the civil defense medical service. It is also used in natural disasters and in other catastrophes with large numbers of victims.
I. P. LIDOV