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pain in the head, caused by dilation of cerebral arteries, muscle contraction, insufficient oxygen in the cerebral blood, reaction to drugs, etc.



one of the most frequent symptoms of various diseases.

Headache arises chiefly in response to irritation of the nerve endings (receptors) of the meninges, venous sinuses, and tunicary and cerebral vessels. Leading factors in the development of a headache include inflammatory affection of the meninges (resulting in irritation of the meningovascular receptors by toxins of the pathogenic agent), compression of the receptors by edema in brain tumors and other accumulative processes (for example, abscess, tuberculoma, and cys-ticercosis), impairment of the circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid accompanied by an elevation in intracranial pressure, vascular diseases (hypertension, hypotension, migraine) that cause a change in extracranial and intracranial vascular tone, chronic cardiovascular insufficiency (for example, congestion of the cerebral veins), and infectious diseases and intoxication accompanied by toxic irritation of the nerve endings. Headache also arises through affection of the cervical nerve roots of the spinal cord and affection of the perivascular neuroplexuses of the major blood vessels of the head (for example, in cervical migraine).

Localization of the headache and determination of its character, time of appearance, and other features are important in discovering its causes. Its course and accompanying signs should also be taken into account. Neurological examination and examination of the internal organs, eyes (vision, fundus oculi, intraocular pressure), ears, paranasal sinuses, endocrine glands, and cerebrospinal fluid are also necessary. In a number of cases physicians also make use of cranial roentgenography, electroencephalography, angioenceph-alography or pneumoencephalography, and rheoenceph-alography.

Treatment includes elimination of the cause of the headache and the prescription of preparations (vasodilative or vasoconstrictive, decreasing intracranial pressure [dehydrating], and analgetic) that counteract the cause of the headache.


Platonova, E. P. Golovnye boli. Moscow, 1960.
Botez, M., and R. Şerbánescu. Algille craniene şi craniofaciale: Fiziopatologie, Diagnosti, Tratament. Bucharest, 1965.
Heyck, H. Bóle gtowy. Warsaw, 1960.



A deep form of pain, with a characteristic aching quality, localized in the head.
References in periodicals archive ?
Group I: Medication Overuse Headache, Group 2: Chronic Migraine, Group 3: Episodic Migraine.
The traditional approach to diagnosis of medication overuse headache involving the revised International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-II) criteria requires a face-to-face interview that takes considerable clinician time and expertise, Dr.
But when the two questions regarding attack treatment frequency and regular use of medications were combined, they had the best sensitivity (95%) and specificity (80%) for identification of medication overuse headache.
Since too frequent use of acute medication can lead to medication overuse headache, preventive medication should also be considered whenever patients require acute medication more than 2 days per week.
Seng cautioned that the results are preliminar, and the trial exncluded patients with medication overuse headache.
The International Headache Society's most recent criteria for medication overuse headache include a headache present for more than 15 days/month, regular use for at least 3 months of one or more drugs that can be taken for acute and/or symptomatic treatment of headache, and a headache that has developed or markedly worsened during medication use (Cephalalgia 2004;24[suppl 1]:9-160).
Stovner presented separately at the congress focused on the distinction between medication overuse headache and chronic daily headache without medication overuse.
It also has regulatory approval for the acute and/or prophylactic treatment of cluster headache, migraine and medication overuse headache in South Africa, India, New Zealand, Australia, Colombia, Brazil and Malaysia, and in Canada for cluster headache.
If a child already has medication overuse headache, recovery can take up to 6 weeks after starting a preventive regimen.
8% met International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICDH-2) criteria for medication overuse headache, and 85% reported awakening tired.
Treating medication overuse headache involves a three-pronged approach of patient education, teaching pain coping skills, and addressing psychological issues that put patients at risk for relapse, Alvin E.

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