Medici, Ferdinand I de'

Medici, Ferdinand I de',

1549–1609, grand duke of Tuscany (1587–1609); brother and successor of Francesco de' MediciMedici, Francesco de'
, 1541–87, grand duke of Tuscany (1574–87); son and successor of Cosimo I de' Medici. In his reign the decline of the Medici family began.
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. He was made a cardinal in his youth, and he built the famous Villa Medici at Rome. To become grand duke at his brother's death he resigned his cardinalate (he had never been ordained). Ferdinand improved the administration, strengthened the fleet, and created the port of Livorno. His son, Cosimo II de' MediciMedici, Cosimo II de',
1590–1621, grand duke of Tuscany (1609–21); son and successor of Ferdinand I de' Medici. Although Cosimo played a role in the War of the Mantuan Succession, he generally avoided intervention in foreign affairs; in domestic policy he was less
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, succeeded him.
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