Medicines


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Related to Medicines: drugs, Medications

Medicines

 

drugs; substances used in the treatment or prevention of diseases. Before the 19th century fresh products or products of vegetable, animal, or mineral origin subjected to relatively simple processing were used as drugs. As chemistry developed, the active principles were isolated from these raw materials, the chemical structures were established, and drugs were synthesized. Analogues and homologues of natural alkaloids, hormones, and other substances were obtained through the study of the connection between chemical structure and pharmacological effect. Elucidation of the mechanisms of action of medicines promoted the purposeful search for new and effective preparations. Before a medicine is adopted by medical practice, it undergoes detailed study, first in experiments on animals and then under clinical conditions.

Medicines may be classified according to chemical structure, influence on physiological systems, sphere of use, or main form of action. Usually a mixed classification using various criteria is preferred. For example, narcotics, neuroleptics, analgesics, spasmolytics, cardiovascular agents, diuretics, laxatives, hormonal preparations, and other medicines designated for the specific treatment of infectious diseases are conventionally called chemotherapeutic agents.

Depending on the effect desired, medicines are introduced into the body by various means: internally, subcutaneously, topically, intramuscularly, intravenously, or by inhalation. Each of these methods requires a special form of the preparation: solution, powder, tablet, or ointment.

With repeated use, a medicine sometimes has a cumulative effect, either as a result of accumulation of the drug in the body or a summation of effects. Attenuation of the effect is also possible. With certain medicines, repeated use may bring about craving and habituation (drug addiction). Individual sensitivity to a medicine is sometimes observed (idiosyncrasy).

The most important medicines, approved in every country, are entered in the Pharmacopoeia with descriptions of their chemical and physical properties, quality determinations, and maximal dose indications.

REFERENCES

Mashkovskii, M. D. Lekarstvennye sredstva, 7th ed., parts 1–2. Moscow, 1972.
Zakusov, V. V. Farmakologiia, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1966.
Kalashnikov, V. P. Rukovodstvo po retsepture, 2nd ed. [Leningrad] 1954.
V. V. ZAKUSOV
References in classic literature ?
I loosed the mat and drew the dead child from the medicines, glancing round fearfully as I did so.
But when he had gone into another room, to which the countess hurriedly followed him, he assumed a grave air and thoughtfully shaking his head said that though there was danger, he had hopes of the effect of this last medicine and one must wait and see, that the malady was chiefly mental, but...
Teton," speaking again in the language of the listener, "I ask you, is not that a wonderful medicine? If the Dahcotahs are wise, they will not breathe the air he breathes, nor touch his robes.
And holding the glass with his two hands, he swallowed the medicine at one gulp.
Strong man though he was, there is no doubt that he had behaved rather foolishly over the medicine. If he had a weakness, it was for thinking that all his life he had taken medicine boldly, and so now, when Michael dodged the spoon in Nana's mouth, he had said reprovingly, "Be a man, Michael."
"Bukawai's medicine is very strong," said the voice.
And each art gives us a particular good and not merely a general one-- medicine, for example, gives us health; navigation, safety at sea, and so on?
Gossip Tourangeau obeyed, and read this inscription engraved above his head: "Medicine is the daughter of dreams.--JAMBLIQUE."
Below it was written the name of the patient for whom the medicine had been prescribed.
The bridge at Medicine Bow is shaky, and would not bear the weight of the train."
This was perfectly arrowproof; add to which, it was often endowed with charmed virtues, by the spells and mystic ceremonials of the medicine man, or conjurer.
Franklin Blake is clever and agreeable, but he wants taking down a peg when he talks of medicine. He confesses that he has been suffering from want of sleep at night.

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