The concept of such structures was popularized by Freeman Dyson, a physicist, in 1960, who argued that advanced civilizations with the ability to build such megastructures
around stars would need them to fill their energy needs and, consequently, long-term survival.
Thus, the control effectiveness of the isolated model whose substructures are all isolated with the megastructures
is better than that of the LSC model, in which the lower substructures are fixedly connected with the megastructure
while the others are connected with the megastructures
The socioeconomic discrepancies are obvious: megastructures
, high-rise residential buildings, and franchised convenience stores alongside vast slums and off-hour street markets.
Mansfield, a writer specializing in architecture and design, traces architects' and others' visions of the ideal city of the future from the Industrial Revolution to the 1960s, such as the City Beautiful Movement, Ebenezer Howard, Le Corbusier, Frank Lloyd Wright, the Italian futurists, Tony Garnier's Cite Industrielle, Antonio Sant'Elia's Citta Nuova, Hugh Ferriss, Raymond Hood, science fiction and World's Fair utopias, megastructures
, and the ideas of the Moderns, shown through b&w sketches and plans.
The team at Arrow Media was behind the making of Airbus' A380 documentary series, the Megastructures
series and in Dubai produced documentaries on World Islands, Burj Al Arab, Palm Jumeirah and the Burj Khalifa.
groups: Archigram with their megastructures
, "clip-on" pod
But if you're a fan of Grand Designs, don't miss this Megastructures
But other influences--from the West--can be detected, in particular the late work of Frank Lloyd Wright and, from Britain, Brutalism and the unbuilt megastructures
The Ultramodern Approach: Systems and Megastructures
Designed by Dublin-based Grafton Architects, the stone-clad building is a sophisticated re-examination of certain 1960s urban megastructures
, sliding effortlessly into the heavyweight context of central Milan.
And close to 90 percent of it is historic preservation--great old structures rehabilitated for offices, condos and more--not just a bunch of new megastructures
Gordon follows a logical chronology from early prototype airports in the 1920s, in which Europe's Le Bourget (Paris), Schiphol (Amsterdam) and Croydon (London) took the lead, through to the futuristic megastructures
of Kansai (Osaka) and Chek Lap Kok (Hong Kong).