Malacca Sultanate

(redirected from Melaka Sultanate)

Malacca Sultanate

 

a Malay state in Southeast Asia from 1402 (or 1403) to 1511, with Malacca as its center.

At its apogee, in the second half of the 15th century, the Malacca Sultanate included the Malay Peninsula, the RiauLingga islands, and the eastern coast of Sumatra. It was founded by Parameswara, a prince of Majapahit. Between 1424 and 1445 the sultanate was shaken by a struggle between feudal coalitions, one of which supported Hinduism and the other Islam. The struggle ended in 1445 with the victory of the Islamic forces and the assumption of power by Raja Kasim, who became the first sultan of Malacca under the name of Muzaffar Shah I. From that time on, power in the sultanate passed from the Malay-Javanese aristocracy to a new feudal elite, which sought an alliance with the Muslim merchantry.

The Malacca Sultanate was a feudal state with a strong central government. Trade, especially foreign trade, played an enormous role. Malacca became the chief port through which India and the Middle East received silk from China and spices from the Malay Archipelago. The mining of tin for export became highly developed. The sultanate was a center for the spread of Islam in Southeast Asia. The period of the sultanate was marked by the flourishing of Malay culture, and the Malay language became the lingua franca of Southeast Asia.

The Malacca Sultanate fell under the blows of the Portuguese colonialists, who took advantage of the sultanate’s weakened condition, brought about by the struggle for power between feudal lords, the conflicts between the ruling elite and the Chinese and Javanese merchantry, and the uprising of vassals on Sumatra. In 1509 the sultanate succeeded in repulsing the first Portuguese attack, but in 1511 it fell to Portuguese troops under the command of d’Albuquerque.

V. A. TIURIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The contested topics covered include the pre-Islamic history of the region, including indigenous and Hindu-Buddhist cultural influences; the arrival and spread of Islam within Malaysia; the Melaka Sultanate and its significance for Malay identity; the Japanese Occupation; the memorialising of prominent individuals from politics and popular culture; and, the representation of cultural heritage and the monarchy in the post-independence period.
Palace, political party and power begins with a brief discussion of the development of Malay kingship from the Melaka sultanate to the colonial period.
As has also been alluded to above, the Melaka Sultanate established its civilizational status in the Malay world primus inter pares precisely because its leaders enacted a system of just rule.
Specifically, Melaka during the Portuguese period, a point also observed by the author, is glaringly absent in Kernial Singh Sandhu and Paul Wheatley's edited magnum opus, Melaka: Transformation of a Malay capital, which looks at the Melaka sultanate, and then hops to 'Melaka under the Dutch', 'Melaka under the British' and other chronological periods down the line.
1), and Ayutthaya, followed by the Melaka sultanate and the rise of Islam.
Information in the Suma Oriental, which notes that Parameswara, the founder of the Melaka Sultanate, was originally a prince of Palembang who had unsuccessfully led a revolt against Javanese rule at Palembang and had to flee to Temasik, indicates that by the late fourteenth century lava's political influence over Palembang, and most of the Riau-Lingga Archipelago, was already firmly established for some time.
The author contends that Aru and Samudera-Pasai represented serious challenges to the Melaka Sultanate in terms of both size and significance during the second half of the fifteenth century.
ATMA is interested in publicising the Melaka Sultanate in the fifteenth century, promoting Zheng He as a prominent regional Muslim, and stressing the range of 'Alam Melayu'.
It was agreed that to satisfy the persistent claims of the Johorean line to be the legitimate successors of the fallen Melaka Sultanate, Johor would receive the land hitherto 'occupied' by the Portuguese.
By the end of the Melaka sultanate, it appears, Melayu had become a way of referring to the minority of the Melaka population who had lived there long enough to speak Malay as a first language and to identify with the sultan as his loyal people.
He was one of the earliest writers to study the Melaka Sultanate through the use of Malay literary texts like the Sejarah Melayu (The Malay Annals).
They have been skillfully arranged in sequence to provide "a view of Malay society at different points in time", so that, while retaining their individual content with only minimal adaptation, they form an organized commentary upon Malay society from the fifteenth century Melaka Sultanate to modern times.