Melampyrum


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Melampyrum

 

(cowwheat), a genus of annual hemiparasitic herbs of the family Scrophulariaceae. The leaves are green, opposite, and usually lanceolate. The flowers are yellow or, less commonly, pink; they form in the axils of large, often brightly colored bracts. The inflorescences are spikelike or racemose. The calyx is tubular and has four lobes; the corolla has two lips. There are four stamens. The fruit is a flattened pod, with one to four large seeds. There are approximately 30 species, distributed in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere. Sixteen species are found in the USSR, growing in thickets, closed kettled valleys, clearings, damp fields, and meadows, as well as along forest edges. The most widespread species are Melampyrum nemorosum, M. pratense, and field cowwheat (M. arvense). Field cowwheat grows as a weed among crops and produces nectar. The seeds of many species contain the glucoside rhinantin and are poisonous to livestock.

References in periodicals archive ?
The interplay between Pinus sylvestris, its root parasite, Melampyrum pratense and ectomycorrhizal fungi: influences on plant growth and reproduction.
This includes endangered species such as those belonging to the genera Ophrys and Orchis and the field cow-wheat (Melampyrum arvense, classified as a priority species in Luxembourg) that are directly dependant on the condition of calcareous grasslands.
Melampyrum pratense, Rubus chamaemorus, Vaccinium myrtillus, Aulacomnium palustre, Cladina spp., Pleurozium schreberi, and some Sphagnum species (Appendix 1).
The first responses during haustorial initiation are cortical enlargement and increasing cell division, resulting in lateral or apical protuberances in the parasite root similar to other Orobanchaceae, such as Bartsia, Lathraea, Melampyrum, Pedicularis and Rhinanthus (Heckard 1962, Dobbins & Kuijt 1973a, Weber & Weberling 1975, Riopel & Timko 1995).
vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris, Festuca ovina, Linaria vulgaris, Luzula pilosa and Melampyrum pratense in the dwarf shrub and herb layer, and Dicranum polysetum, D.
Spread of an ant-dispersed annual herb: an individual-based simulation study on population development of Melampyrum pratense L.
Presence of spores of light-demanding bracken (Pteridium) and pollen of cow-wheat (Melampyrum), considered to be indicators of grazed forest suggest an existence of clearings in the forest.
(8) Nitella flexilis (1) Potamogeton alpinus (1, 8) Potamogeton epihydrus (8) Potamogeton foliosus (8) Positive Effects Melampyrum lineare (15) Rubus parviflorus (14) Woody with Terminal Bud Aquatic At Reach Negative Effects Chara vulgaris (1) Abies balsamea (3,4,5,6) Characae sp.
Notes on the pollination of Melampyrum pratense and the "honeystealing" of humble-bees and bees.
The flowers of the Rhinantheae, such as Pedicularis, Melampyrum, Rhinanthus, Castilleja, and Lamourouxia [the latter may be a member of the Agalineae, according to its seed morphology in Barringer's (1984) study], also show strong bilateral symmetry.
Rosebay Willow-herb (Chamaenerion angustifolium) may, to the untrained eye, look suspiciously like Purple Looses-trife (Lythrum salicaria), and two members of the Figwort family Scrophulariaceae--Yellow Lute (Odontites lutea) and Common Cow-wheat (Melampyrum pratense)--may also be easily confused by someone who is gingerly taking their first herb-hunting expedition in the fields.