Melampyrum


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Melampyrum

 

(cowwheat), a genus of annual hemiparasitic herbs of the family Scrophulariaceae. The leaves are green, opposite, and usually lanceolate. The flowers are yellow or, less commonly, pink; they form in the axils of large, often brightly colored bracts. The inflorescences are spikelike or racemose. The calyx is tubular and has four lobes; the corolla has two lips. There are four stamens. The fruit is a flattened pod, with one to four large seeds. There are approximately 30 species, distributed in the temperate zones of the northern hemisphere. Sixteen species are found in the USSR, growing in thickets, closed kettled valleys, clearings, damp fields, and meadows, as well as along forest edges. The most widespread species are Melampyrum nemorosum, M. pratense, and field cowwheat (M. arvense). Field cowwheat grows as a weed among crops and produces nectar. The seeds of many species contain the glucoside rhinantin and are poisonous to livestock.

References in periodicals archive ?
The interplay between Pinus sylvestris, its root parasite, Melampyrum pratense and ectomycorrhizal fungi: influences on plant growth and reproduction.
Melampyrum pratense, Rubus chamaemorus, Vaccinium myrtillus, Aulacomnium palustre, Cladina spp.
The first responses during haustorial initiation are cortical enlargement and increasing cell division, resulting in lateral or apical protuberances in the parasite root similar to other Orobanchaceae, such as Bartsia, Lathraea, Melampyrum, Pedicularis and Rhinanthus (Heckard 1962, Dobbins & Kuijt 1973a, Weber & Weberling 1975, Riopel & Timko 1995).
vitis-idaea, Calluna vulgaris, Festuca ovina, Linaria vulgaris, Luzula pilosa and Melampyrum pratense in the dwarf shrub and herb layer, and Dicranum polysetum, D.
Spread of an ant-dispersed annual herb: an individual-based simulation study on population development of Melampyrum pratense L.
8) Nitella flexilis (1) Potamogeton alpinus (1, 8) Potamogeton epihydrus (8) Potamogeton foliosus (8) Positive Effects Melampyrum lineare (15) Rubus parviflorus (14) Woody with Terminal Bud Aquatic At Reach Negative Effects Chara vulgaris (1) Abies balsamea (3,4,5,6) Characae sp.
Notes on the pollination of Melampyrum pratense and the "honeystealing" of humble-bees and bees.
The flowers of the Rhinantheae, such as Pedicularis, Melampyrum, Rhinanthus, Castilleja, and Lamourouxia [the latter may be a member of the Agalineae, according to its seed morphology in Barringer's (1984) study], also show strong bilateral symmetry.
caerulea communities with dry forest edge species of Trifolio-Geranietea covered small patches in dry, sunny sites along the forest-grassland edges and often contained several forest edge species such as Agrimonia eupatoria, Trifolium medium, Origanum vulgare, Melampyrum nemorosum, Solidago virgaurea.
Bumblebee visitation and seedset in Melampyrum pretense and Viscafia vulgaris--Heterospecific pollen and pollen limitation.