Philipp Melanchthon

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Philipp Melanchthon
Philipp Schwartzerdt
BirthplaceBretten, near Karlsruhe
Theologian, professor
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Melanchthon, Philipp


(Greek name of P. Schwartzerd). Born Feb. 16, 1497, in Bretten, Baden; died Apr. 19, 1560, in Wittenberg. German humanist and theologian; a leader of the Lutheran Reformation (the moderate burgher wing). Son of a gunsmith.

In 1518, Melanchthon was appointed professor of Greek at the University of Wittenberg, where he became Luther’s closest companion and friend. Melanchthon was an ardent opponent of the Peasant War of 1524–26; he likewise opposed T. Miintzer, and the Anabaptists. As a theorist of Lutheranism, he generalized the principles of Lutheran theology. (He compiled the Loci communes rerum theologicarum, 1521, and the Augsburg Confession, 1530.) After Luther died in 1546, Melanchthon became the head of Lutheranism. He was the author of many pedagogical essays and textbooks, and he was involved in the reorganization of the school and university systems in Saxony and other areas of Germany and the propagation of a classical education (for which he was called Praeceptor Germaniae, “the teacher of Germany”); in education, however, he subordinated humanist ideals to the interests of the Lutheran Church and the princes.


Werke in Auswahl, vols. 1–7. Edited by R. Stupperich. Giitersloh, 1951–71.


Stupperich, R. Melanchthon. Berlin, 1960.
Stern, L. P. Melanchthon: Humanist, Reformator, Praeceptor Germaniae. Halle, 1963.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
After concluding his treatment of Melancthon, Mack briefly summarizes the works of several less influential figures who were roughly contemporary with Melancthon: Latomus, Ringelberg, Rivius, Vives, and others.
(49.) Melancthon, Adversus Anabaptistas Philippi Melanthonis Indicium, in Philippi Melanthonis opera quae supersunt omnia, vol.
In addition, both Melancthon and Zwingli seem to have had some encounters with living Jews, as Wengert and Kirn document.
(72.) Wilson to Melancthon Jacobus, July 20, 1915, PWW 33: 535.
If Melancthon supplied the text for Law and Gospel, it was almost surely with Luther's blessing.
With A Review of the Corresponding Prophecies of Scripture Relating to Coming Events and the Approaching End of the Age (London, 1905); Melancthon William H.
Under Martyr's direction and mentorship, Zanchi engaged in daily exposition of the Scriptures and became acquainted with the works of such leading Reformation figures as Martin Bucer (1491-1551), Philip Melancthon (1497-1560), Heinrich Bullinger (1504-1575), and John Calvin (1509-1564).
(26) She has also added the reference 'haec Melancthon' after Luther's first prayer, a reference not found in Foxe.
Jesus had Saint Paul, Luther had Melancthon. In a parallel way, we have left the advertising research of personal charisma, of Lazarsfeld, the Y&R research department when Bill Moran was a cub, yes even of Ernst Dichter.
Foreshadowing many contemporary claims about the power of tests, Philip Melancthon, a Protestant German teacher, wrote in De Studiis Adolescentum, "No academical exercise can be more useful than that of examination.
Luther's conviction that baptism removed guilt contrasted with Zwingli's view that baptism operated only as a sign, not as a vehicle of grace.(23) In response to Melancthon's doubts about infant baptism, Luther reaffirmed the Augustinian doctrine that the faith of sponsors sufficed.(24) Luther had no doubt that the doctrine of adult baptism was inspired by Satan,(25) and the German diet passed a statute in 1529 making rebaptism a capital crime.(26)
These ranged from Tory theses of James's moral incapacity to rule, evidenced by his tyranny, to loyalist "theses of contract, non-contractarian resistance, possession, conquest and abdication," to Whig political theory with roots in the radical reformation thinkers Calvin, Luther, and Melancthon (Goldie 1978, 76, 82).