Melioidosis


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Related to Melioidosis: Burkholderia pseudomallei

melioidosis

[‚mel·ē‚ȯi′dō·səs]
(veterinary medicine)
An endemic bacterial disease, primarily of rodents but occasionally communicable to humans, caused by Pseudomonas pseudomallei and characterized by infectious granulomas.

Melioidosis

 

(pneumoenteritis, pseudoglanders), an acute infectious zoonotic disease.

The causative agent of melioidosis is the microorganism Malleomyces pseudomallei, which is similar to the glanders bacillus in antigenic and morphological properties and is pathogenic for rats, guinea pigs, rabbits, mice, dogs, and sheep. Rats, the main reservoir of infection, excrete the causative agent with their urine and feces. Under natural conditions, melioidosis is transmitted from animal to animal by the ingestion of food infected with the discharges of the diseased rats.

Melioidosis is found in Southeast Asia, Australia, and Madagascar. Cases have occurred in the USA, Indonesia, and the Philippine Islands. No verifiable cases of melioidosis in man have been recorded on the territory of the USSR. Infection from humans affected with the disease has not been observed. Melioidosis is transmitted from sick animals through food or water. The condition is manifested by diverse symptoms resembling those of glanders, plague, cholera, and certain other diseases. Preventive measures include exterminating rats and protecting food products and drinking water from contamination with the excretions of diseased animals. Hospitalization of the patient is imperative. The focus of the disease should be disinfected.

I. I. ELKIN

Melioidosis in animals may be acute, subacute, or chronic. In sheep and goats symptoms of the disease include cough, polyarthritis, and affection of the prescapular lymph nodes. In dogs, cats, and rodents, symptoms include diarrhea, purulent conjunctivitis, vaginitis, and rhinitis, with the formation of irregularly shaped ulcers and abscessed lymph nodes. Cachexia develops. Diagnosis of the condition is made on the basis of the clinical symptoms, autopsy, and bacteriological examination. A specific course of treatment has not yet been developed, and attempts to cure the diseased animals have proved ineffective.

Melioidosis can be prevented in animals by exterminating rodents, the principal natural reservoir of the infection. When an animal is suspected of having contracted the disease, it should be isolated and subjected to bacteriological examination. If the condition is confirmed, the animal should be killed and cremated, with care taken to avoid infection.

REFERENCES

Epizootologiia. Edited by R. F. Sosov. Moscow, 1969.
Rudnev, G. P. Antropozoonozy. Moscow, 1970.
References in periodicals archive ?
In addition, products containing the same active ingredient, dusquetide, have been granted Fast Track Designation as an adjunctive therapy with other antibacterial drugs, for the treatment of melioidosis and Orphan Drug Designations in the treatment of MAS and the treatment of acute radiation syndrome.
This work specifically focused on the agents that cause anthrax, melioidosis, tularemia, and plague but could be applicable to others.
Additionally, mallein test also eliminates the possibility of cross reactivity in serological testing of animals in the melioidosis endemic countries (Silva et al., 2013).
pseudomallei resistant to piperacillin-tazobactam, ceftazidime and meropenem indicating relapse of disseminated melioidosis resistant to multiple antibiotics.
Our patient had persistent fever with multiple bilateral opacifications, which directed us to exclude subacute bacterial endocarditis, pulmonary tuberculosis, and pulmonary melioidosis. But the patient showed a poor response to intravenous ceftazidime and also had negative mycobacterial studies.
Melioidosis has variable, nonspecific presentation, which can include cutaneous infection, pneumonia, bacteremia, septicemia, and other manifestations, after an incubation period of 1-21 days, although longer incubations of months or years have been reported (1,2).
In a 2012 research paper titled Melioidosis--A Century of Observation and Research, the authors write: 'American servicemen, exposed to the organism during a well defined period in an endemic area, would occasionally develop melioidosis long after returning to their native, non-endemic country.
(10.) Kunnathuparambil SG, Sathar SA, Tank DC Splenic abscess due to chronic melioidosis in a patient previously misdiagnosed as tuberculosis.Ann Gastroenterol.
Furthermore, glibenclamide displays a protective role in inflammation-induced injury in various systems, including respiration [10-12], digestion [13], urology [14-16], cardiology [17], CNS [18-21], some special conditions such as melioidosis [12,22] and ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury [23-26], and septic shock [27-29].
Bautista et al., "Host responses to melioidosis and tuberculosis are both dominated by interferon-mediated signaling," PLoS ONE, vol.
Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a common infectious disease in tropical and subtropical regions and is especially endemic in Southeast Asia [1].
Dialysis patients are known to have high vulnerability to bacterial infections [11], in our region, melioidosis bacteraemia [12], and staphylococcal bacteraemia [13].