Melnikov, Avraam Ivanovich
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Mel’nikov, Avraam (Abram) Ivanovich
Born July 30 (Aug. 10), 1784, in Oranienbaum, in present-day Lomonosov; died Jan. 1 (13), 1854, in St. Petersburg. Russian architect; representative of the late Empire style.
From 1795 to 1807, Mel’nikov studied under A. D. Zakharov at the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. Between 1808 and 1811 he trained in Italy on a stipend. In 1811 he became a teacher at the academy, receiving a professorship there in 1818 (became a member in 1812). Mel’nikov was made a rector at the academy in 1843. He became a member of the St. Petersburg Construction Commission in 1818.
Mel’nikov designed and constructed public, religious, and residential buildings in many Russian cities. His works include the Church of St. Nikita in Mtsensk (early 19th century), the lyceum in Yaroslavl (first quarter of the 19th century), the semicircular plaza ensemble in Odessa (1826-29, now the Square of the Commune), the market arcades in Rostov (1830), and the cathedral in Kishinev (1830-35, now a branch of the Art Museum of the Moldavian SSR). Mel’nikov designed a number of model projects and did the architectural work in many monuments done by the sculptor I. P. Martos.