West of Cape Walker the southern land disappeared altogether; there, although Parry did not realize it, Parry Channel widens out into Viscount Melville Sound. Finally, southwest of Melville Island, Parry saw a coast to which he gave the name Banks Land (Parry, 1821:52-74, 238, 265).
He reported (1851:102; see also Barr, 2016) that "huge masses of ice" were pressed up into ridges, sometimes resembling "a heavy cross sea suddenly frozen solid." However, Osborn did not realize he was looking at a channel through which a large part of the Viscount Melville Sound ice was carried to the southeast.
He wintered in the ice near the strait's northern end, and after a short sledge journey was able to confirm on 26 October 1850 that it opened into Viscount Melville Sound. Although Melville Island was not visible, the explorers' sight reportedly (Osborn, 1856:138) "embraced a distance which precluded the possibility of any land lying" between them and it.
Key words: grizzly bear, High Arctic, hybrid, Melville Island, microsatellite analysis, Northwest Territories, Paulatuk, polar bear, Ursus arctos, Viscount Melville Sound
The best-documented sighting during this period was by biologist Mitch Taylor: during a helicopter survey of Viscount Melville Sound on 4 May 1991, he observed a grizzly bear on the sea ice (73[degrees] 47'N, 112[degrees] 17'W) about 60 km south of the Dundas Peninsula, Melville Island (Taylor, 1995).
During a helicopter survey of southern Dundas Peninsula, Melville Island, on 25 July 2003, a field party was dropped off by helicopter inland of Viscount Melville Sound, near Cape Clarendon.
Belugas, once viewed as shallow-water creatures, were revealed to be regular summer visitors to deep trenches in Peel Sound (Richard et al., this issue: 207-222) and Viscount Melville Sound
(Richard et al., this issue: 223-236).
They spent much of their time offshore, near or beyond the shelf break and in the polar pack ice of the estuary, or in Amundsen Gulf, M'Clure Strait, and Viscount Melville Sound. The movements of tagged belugas into the polar pack and into passages of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago suggest that aerial surveys conducted in the southeastern Beaufort Sea and Amundsen Gulf may have substantially underestimated the size of the eastern Beaufort Sea stock.
Amundsen Gulf, M'Clure Strait, and Viscount Melville Sound are comparatively deep bodies of water (maximum depths = ca.
Viscount Melville Sound is also partially ice-free by mid-August.
In the west, the highest dwell-times were in the Mackenzie Estuary and within a deep trench located within M'Clure Strait and Viscount Melville Sound. An intermediate dwell-time mode was located offshore along the edge of the Beaufort Sea pack ice, and smaller modes were evident within Amundsen Gulf and in a travel corridor between the Mackenzie Estuary and M'Clure Strait.
In the Beaufort Sea and Baffin Bay regions, they also seek deep areas (300-600 m) in the summer, particularly in Viscount Melville Sound, Amundsen Gulf, and Peel Sound (Smith and Martin, 1994; Richard et al., 2001 a, b).