Chao Phraya

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Chao Phraya

Chao Phraya (chou präyäˈ), Mae Nam Chao Phraya, or Menam Chao Phraya (both: mănämˈ), chief river of Thailand, c.140 mi (230 km) long, formed by the confluence of the Ping (c.300 mi/480 km long) and the Nan (c.500 mi/800 km) rivers at Nakhon Sawan, W central Thailand. It flows S past Bangkok to the Gulf of Thailand and is navigable for its entire length. With its tributaries, the Chao Phraya drains most of W Thailand; its valley is the country's main rice-producing region. The many distributaries of the Chao Phraya delta are interconnected by canals that serve both for irrigation and for transportation.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Chao Phraya

 

(or Menam), a river on the peninsula of Indochina; the largest river in Thailand. It has a length of approximately 1,200 km. (From the headwaters of the main tributary, the Ping, the length is about 1,500 km.) Basin area, approximately 150,000 sq km.

The Chao Phraya rises on the slopes of the Khun Tan Range and in the Phi Pan Nam Mountains. It flows from north to south, primarily within the Chao Phraya Lowland, and empties into the Gulf of Thailand of the South China Sea, forming a delta that advances 30–60 cm into the sea each year because of the large amount of sediments. The river is fed by rain and has a monsoonal regime. The high water period is from May through November, with a large part of the delta being flooded in October and November; the lowest water level occurs in April. The mean flow rate in the lower course is approximately 2,700 cu m per sec. The water of the Chao Phraya and its tributaries is extensively used for irrigation, mainly of rice paddies. Logs are floated on the river, and there is fishing, with carp being the main fish. The Chao Phraya is navigable for 400 km (to the mouth of the Ping River); in high water it is navigable for 750 km (to the city of Uttaradit). The cities of Bangkok and Ayutthaya are in the delta.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
But the Siameses which were at that expedition, do not know of that famous Lake, from whence our Geographers make the River Menam arise, and to which, according to them, this City gave its Names: which makes me to think either that it is more distant than our Geographers have conceived, or that there is no such Lake ...
"We searched for key historic figures in the MENAM region to give us perspectives on how their artistic movements started.
Here then we have four new polities, three of which are closely linked to the sea, arising in the twelfth to thirteenth centuries in the Menam valley.
DAY 5 AYUTTHAYA North of the capital through the fertile Menam lowlands is Thailand's "rice bowl." Dams and canals are all over the countryside of this wide, fertile plain.
[He, being thus described, married whom?] Sa evambhutah Menam upayeme.
As many as sixty-six royal balons (or richly decorated gondolas) awaited Chaumont and his party at the mouth of the Menam Chao Phraya, where a particularly splendid vessel was reserved for the ambassador and Choisy.(54) "A Portuguese whom the King [of Siam] had made General of the Troops in Bangkok" (probably a mestizo) also attended Chaumont as a special courtesy "[to] give orders for all things."(55) Four ornate craft were appointed, as well, to carry the various members of the French entourage, while in two columns on either side of the chevalier's balon the gondolas of twelve court mandarins served as an escort.
Homan van der Heide, General Report on Irrigation and Drainage in the Lower Menam Valley (Bangkok: Ministry of Agriculture, 1903), p.
He suggests that it must be located in the Menam valley, but is no more definite.
This must be considered in the light of a growing opinion that at this time the population of the Menam basin was possibly more Mon or Khmer in its culture.
In August 1886, with what authority was not clear, he proposed an effective dismemberment of Siam by Britain and France, leaving to Bangkok only the central Menam valley.
The more ambitious French colonialists saw the acquisition of the Lao territories as a step towards imposing French control over Siam,(19) even though given the dominant position Britain enjoyed in the valley of the Menam Chao Phaya, this was never a realistic hope.
Tokios lankscios, skirtingiems mokymo(si) budams tinkamos klases reikalingos humanitarinems disciplinoms, menams, technologijoms, sportui, dramai (Hille 2011).