Felix Mendelssohn

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Mendelssohn, Felix

(Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn) (mĕn`dəlsən, Ger. yä`kôp lo͝ot`vĭkh fā`lĭks mĕn`dəls-zōn'), 1809–47, German composer; grandson of the Jewish philosopher Moses MendelssohnMendelssohn, Moses
, 1729–86, German-Jewish philosopher; grandfather of Felix Mendelssohn. He was a leader in the movement for cultural assimilation. In 1743 he went to Berlin, where he studied and worked, becoming (1750) a partner in a silk merchant's firm.
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. Mendelssohn was one of the major figures in 19th-century European music. His father, Abraham, upon conversion to Christianity, changed his surname to Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, a seldom-used form. A prodigy, reared in a highly cultured atmosphere, the young Felix, who began composing at age 10, presented his orchestral compositions to illustrious audiences at the family estate. His first mature work, the Overture to A Midsummer Night's Dream, now a classical concert staple, was composed at 17, and he showed similar precocity at the piano.

In 1829, he conducted the St. Matthew Passion, stimulating a revival of interest in the music of J. S. BachBach, Johann Sebastian
, 1685–1750, German composer and organist, b. Eisenach; one of the greatest and most influential composers of the Western world. He brought polyphonic baroque music to its culmination, creating masterful and vigorous works in almost every musical
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. He was musical director (1833–35) at Düsseldorf, became (1835) conductor of the Gewandhaus concerts, Leipzig, and helped found (1842–43) the Leipzig Conservatory. He was appointed (1841) director of the music section of the Academy of Arts, Berlin, and often conducted the London Philharmonic Orchestra. His music is characterized by emotional restraint, refinement, sensitivity, and a fastidious adherence to classical forms. Of his five symphonies, the Scottish (1842), Italian (1833), and Reformation (1832) are best known. Frequently performed are his Violin Concerto in E Minor (1845); The Hebrides Overture, or Fingal's Cave (1832); and two oratorios, St. Paul (1836) and Elijah (1846). Outstanding piano works include the Variations sérieuses (1841) and eight sets of Songs without Words (1832–45). He also composed chamber music, songs, choral music, and six organ sonatas.

Bibliography

See his letters (ed. by G. Selden-Goth, 1945); biographies by G. R. Marek (1972), W. Blunt (1974), P. Mercer-Taylor (2000), and R. L. Todd (2003); H. Kupferberg, The Mendelssohns (1972).

His elder sister, Fanny Cäcilie Mendelssohn Hensel, 1805–47, was also a musical prodigy and a gifted composer and pianist. Her parents allowed her lessons, but forbade a musical career as indecent for a woman. She nonetheless led a musical salon and composed some 500 works, many of them for piano. Many of her compositions were rediscovered in the late 20th and early 21st cent.

Bibliography

See M. J. Citron, ed., The Letters of Fanny Hensel to Felix Mendelssohn (1987); biographies by F. Tillard (2003) and R. L. Todd.

References in periodicals archive ?
Schumann, der sich von Jugend an auf unterschiedliche Weise (als Interpret, Rezensent und Komponist) mit Ouverturen auseinandergesetzt hat, kann ab 1841 bei seinen eigenen Kompositionen in diesem Bereich auf vielfaltige, insbesondere durch Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy gepragte Traditionen (hier allen voran dessen Auspragung der Konzertouverture) zuruckgreifen.
Sara Levy und ihr musikalisches Wirken, mit einer Dokumentensammlung zur musik-alischen Familiengeschichte der Vorfahren von Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. By Peter Wollny.
The second chapter opens with a quote from a letter written by Fanny's father Abraham Mendelssohn Bartholdy to her in July 1820, when she was 14 years old, that clearly expresses family expectations for Fanny as a musician: "Music will perhaps become his profession, whilst for you it can and must only be an ornament, never the root of your being and doing" (p.
Text von Carl Klingemann, Julius Schubring, und Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. Op.
Mendelssohn Bartholdy: the complete sacred vocal music.
The latter-day flourishing of scholarly and general interest in the music and life of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy gained its initial impulse after World War II, as the musical world began to recognize the injustices propagated on grounds of politics but in the name of art during the century's volatile early decades.
Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. Die erste Walpurgisnacht: Ballade von Goethe fur Chor und Orchester, op.
Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. Konzert fur Klavier und Streichorchester, a-Moll.
Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy: Die vier grossen Konzert-Ouverturen.
The name of Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy (1809-1847) is familiar to every serious musician, and many of his works are familiar to everyone who has had any exposure to Western art music.
http://www.baerenreiter.com/ Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy: the great overtures.
Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy. Musik zu Ein Sommernachtstramn von Shakespeare, op.