Menelik II


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Related to Menelik II: Tewodros II

Menelik II

(mĕn`əlĭk), 1844–1913, emperor of Ethiopia after 1889. He was originally ras (ruler) of Shoa (central Ethiopia). After the death (1868) of Emperor Tewodros II, Menelik, with Italian support, gained strength steadily. He seized the throne after Emperor Johannes IV died. In 1889, Menelik concluded the Treaty of Uccialli with Italy. When he learned, however, that the Italian version of the treaty made Ethiopia a protectorate of Italy, he denounced the agreement. The Italian invasion that followed (1895–96) was crushed by Menelik's great victory near AdwaAdwa
, Aduwa,
or Adowa
, Ital. Adua, town (1994 pop. 24,519), Tigray region, N Ethiopia. Lying on the highway between Aksum and Adigrat, Adwa is an agricultural trade center. Adwa was the most important commercial center of Tigray in the 19th cent.
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. Italy was forced to renounce all claim to Ethiopia and to pay an indemnity. Menelik took important steps to strengthen and modernize his domain. He made Addis Ababa his capital, constructed a railroad, attempted to end the slave trade, and curbed the feudal nobility. His conquests doubled the size of the country and brought the present S Ethiopia (largely Muslim in population) into the realm. Gradually his health failed, and the end of his reign was marked by intrigue and maneuvering for the succession. He was succeeded as emperor by Lij Yasu.

Menelik II

 

Born Aug. 17, 1844, in Ankober, in the province of Shoa; died Dec. 22, 1913, in Addis Ababa. Emperor of Ethiopia from 1889.

Menelik completed the centralization of the state begun by Theodore II and John IV. Crushing feudal separatism in Gojam, Amhara, and Tigre, he created a unified Ethiopian state and skillfully exploited the intense rivalry between Britain, Italy, and France to preserve Ethiopia’s independence. His government sponsored the construction of roads and the development of trade. In his reign a regular army was created, a national currency introduced, a hospital built, and the first state supported school founded. Menelik also sought to strengthen large-scale private landownership. Illness forced him to withdraw from state affairs in 1909.

Menelik II

1844--1913, emperor of Abyssinia (1889--1910). He defeated the Italians at Aduwa (1896), maintaining the independence of Abyssinia in an era of European expansion in Africa
References in periodicals archive ?
Caption: Below: The equestrian statue of Emperor Menelik II rears over the skyline of Addis Ababa as the construction of the city continues unabated
(2) Menelik II ascendio al trono de Etiopia en 1889 y en mayo de ese ano firmo con Italia el Tratado de Wuchale, cuyo original en italiano permitia interpretar que dicho territorio era un protectorado.
In this regard I have no doubt that it is not difficult for any of us here to imagine the courage and determination which drove the leaders of the Ethiopian national army, led by Emperor Menelik II, Empress Taitu and others, as they led the successful struggle to defeat the encroachment of Italian colonialism and therefore defend the independence of Ethiopia.
The study was conducted at the glaucoma clinic of Menelik II Hospital (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia) using a cross-sectional study design.
The study was conducted at Menelik II Referral Hospital, governmental hospital found in capital city of Ethiopia in Addis Ababa.
Pattern of ocular injuries seen at Menelik II Hospital, A.A Ethiopia.
The Development Bank of Ethiopia (DBE) can trace its history back to 1909 and was the first attempt of its kind to promote trade and agriculture during the reign of Emperor Menelik II. Nowadays it focuses on the country's economic development by providing medium and long-term investment credits as wll as short-term loans along with technical assistance to viable projects.
In the heart of Addis Ababa, the statue of 19th century Emperor Menelik II, stands watch over construction of the Light Rail Transit (LRT), part of Ethiopia's grand plan to create a national railway infrastructure for the 21st century.
The revered nineteenth century ruler Menelik II was reputed to have ordered three electric chairs to execute criminals.
A modest attempt was made by Emperor Menelik II (1889-1913) to open the first school in his palace (Teshome, 1979: 28; Pankhrust, 1968: 676).
The city has grown at an astonishing speed to four million people since it was founded in 1886, when Emperor Menelik II had his palace built here.
Above all, due to the resistance of the Ethiopian Emperors (such as Tewodros, Yohannes IV, Menelik II) towards the foreign influx of religious values, the establishment of a Protestant church in Ethiopia was not possible until the 20th century.