Ménière's disease

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Ménière's disease

(mən-yĕrz`), disorder of the inner ear characterized by recurrent vertigovertigo
, sensations of moving in space or of objects moving about a person and the resultant difficulty in maintaining equilibrium. True vertigo, as distinguished from faintness, lightheadedness, and other forms of dizziness, occurs as a result of a disturbance of some part of
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 combined with hearing loss and tinnitustinnitus,
the hearing of sounds in the absence of any external sound, also known as ringing in the ears. The sounds may be perceived as hissing, whistling, buzzing, swooshing, roaring, or clicking in addition to ringing; in rare cases indistinct voices or music may be heard.
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 (a ringing sensation). It was first described by the French otologist Prosper Ménière, in 1861. The sufferer experiences severe dizziness, in which objects may seem to spin around, and often nausea, vomiting, and sweating. Attacks may last for several hours. In the disorder, which occurs most often in men between the ages of 40 and 60, the symptoms are the result of abnormally large amounts of a fluid (endolymph) collecting in the inner ear, but the exact cause of the disease or of the trigger for an attack is unclear. The disease is most typically treated by a reduced-sodium diet and diurectics; an acute attack may be treated by medications that control the vertigo and nausea. Vestibular rehabilitation therapy is sometimes used to help patient cope with the sense of imbalance that may occur between attacks. Surgical procedures that relieve the condition include vestibular neurectomy, labyrinthectomy, sacculotomy (placement of a stainless steel tack through the footplate of the stapes), ultrasonic irradiation, endolymphatic-subarachnoid shunt, and cryosurgery for relief of frequent vertiginous attacks and degenerative hearing.

Ménière’s Disease


a condition characterized by vertigo in combination with noise in one ear, impairment of hearing, nausea, vomiting, and loss of equilibrium; named after the French physician P. Ménière (1799-1862), who described it in 1861.

Ménière’s disease generally begins in patients between the ages of 25 and 40. Attacks may last for hours or even days. They are provoked by a decrease in the tonus of the vessels supplying blood to the peripheral portions of the vestibulocochlear nerve, which performs auditory and vestibular functions. According to another view, the disease is caused directly by increased fluid (endolymph) pressure in the inner ear. The vertigo is usually systemic in nature—that is, there is a sensation that surrounding objects or the patient himself is turning in a certain direction. Hearing is often unilaterally impaired after the attack passes. Loss of hearing progresses with repeated attacks, and deafness may result. Ménière-like conditions, with symptoms resembling Ménière’s syndrome, may also occur in some organic brain dis-eases (arachnoiditis, tumor of the cerebellopontile angle).

Ménière’s disease is treated with a series of strychnine and neostigmine-methylsulfate injections, with physical therapy (ultrahigh-frequency therapy, galvanic collar), and exercise. Drugs that dilate the blood vessels of the inner ear (pilocarpine) and brain (nicotinic acid, papaverine) and agents that decrease the excitability of the brain stem (atropine sulfate, chlorpromazine, haloperidol) are also prescribed. Surgery may sometimes be necessary.


Velikov, K. A. Sindrom i boleznMen ’era. Moscow, 1967.
Patiakina, O. K., and T. D. Zadorova. “Simpozium o bolezni Men’era.”[New York, June 1965.] Vestnik otorinolaringologii, 1966, no. 5.
Bystrzanowska, T. Choroba Ménière’a. Warsaw, 1970.


References in periodicals archive ?
Population studies on HLA alleles associated with Meniere disease (p < 0.05) in English literature Reference Population HLA class I Xenellis et al (11) British CW*7 Koyama et al (12) Japanese Meng et al (13) Northern Chinese Lopez-Egcamez et al (14) Mediterranean Yeo et al (15) Southern Korean CW*0303 CW*0602 B*44 CW*0162 Dabiri et al (16) Iranian CW*04 CW*16 Present study Taiwanese A*11 Reference HLA class II Xenellis et al (11) Koyama et al (12) DRB1*1602 Meng et al (13) DRB1*09 Lopez-Egcamez et al (14) DRB1*1101 Yeo et al (15) Dabiri et al (16) Present study Key: HLA = human leukocyte antigen.
Xu, "The Intimate Relationship between Vestibular Migraine and Meniere Disease: A Review of Pathogenesis and Presentation," Behavioural Neurology, vol.
Pathophysiology of Meniere Disease. Similar to VM, although with a more extensive history of recognition and research, the pathophysiology of MD has yet to be fully elaborated [48].
* The report provides a snapshot of the global therapeutic landscape of Meniere Disease
* Coverage of the Meniere Disease pipeline on the basis of target, MoA, route of administration and molecule type
We know that not only sudden hearing loss but also other unilateral disorders, such as tinnitus or Meniere disease, occur more frequently in the left ear than in the right.
Extended phenotype and clinical subgroups in unilateral Meniere disease: A cross-sectional study with cluster analysis.
Anatomic variations may include the distortion of the membranous labyrinth in Meniere disease, an enlarged vestibular aqueduct, and even dislodged otoliths; in the latter case, the fluid dynamics model complements current theories of BPPV.
The etiology of Meniere disease is thought to be multifactorial, involving both genetic and environmental factors.
For example, in some patients, sudden deafness is followed by symptoms of Meniere disease months or even years later.
Furthermore, patients may present with aural fullness, stuffiness, or pressure as a clinical precursor to cochlear hydrops or Meniere disease. Subclinical cochlear hydrops has been the diagnosis given to patients with aural fullness, stuffiness, or pressure with or without a sensory hearing loss once other etiologies have been ruled out.
While obtaining very careful histories from Meniere disease patients over the years, we have found that BPPV is a common concomitant condition.