Merkle tree


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Merkle tree

A hashed summary of transactions stored in the header of a block in a blockchain distributed ledger. Transaction data are recursively hashed twice using the SHA256 cryptographic algorithm until there is only one hash value remaining, known as the "Merkle root." The root is very small in size and can be quickly processed to determine if a transaction resides within the block. For example, 16 transactions in a block produce a 128-byte Merkle path, but 65,535 transactions take up only 512 bytes. See blockchain.


Blockchain Headers
The Merkle root is stored in the headers of the blocks in the blockchain.
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References in periodicals archive ?
Extended Merkle Tree is based on XOR Tree and implements the collision resistance by applying bit mask technique to the key.
Then, we use the root value of the hash tree created by weaving the entire tree using the extended Merkle tree and finally generate the hash value as a public key.
In this section, we will give some descriptions of sliding window method and position-aware Merkle tree.
Position-Aware Merkle Tree. Merkle hash tree [42] is extensively utilized in data integrity [43].
In other words, peer 2 infers that the cluster is shared between the two images from the fact that there exists an identical hash value in its Merkle tree. In a similar way, the fact that peer 3 owns chunk cluster e gets known to peer 2.
Chunk fingerprints, i.e., nodes of the Merkle tree, are exchanged among swarming partners.
(2003) Fractal Merkle Tree Representation and Traversal.
[8] introduces several methods to traverse Merkle trees allowing time-space trade-offs.
Definition Merkle trees. It is a binary tree with an employment of a string with each node: n [right arrow] P(n) [member of] [{0,1}.sup.k] p([n.sub.parent]) = hash(p([n.sub.left]) [parallel] (p([n.sub.right]) ...(1) where the value of the parent node products from a one-way hash function of the children's node values (see equation 1).
In the SWHash scheme, the memory is partitioned into chunks and a l-level Merkle tree is built up for integrity verification.
To reduce the complexity of data management, we adopt the same techniques, i.e., a Merkle Tree, as in [3,5] to maintain the authentication structure.