Mesolithic period


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Related to Mesolithic period: Mesolithic Age, Neolithic Period, Paleolithic period

Mesolithic period

(mĕz'əlĭth`ĭk) or

Middle Stone Age,

period in human development between the end of the Paleolithic periodPaleolithic period
or Old Stone Age,
the earliest period of human development and the longest phase of mankind's history. It is approximately coextensive with the Pleistocene geologic epoch, beginning about 2 million years ago and ending in various places between
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 and the beginning of the Neolithic periodNeolithic period
or New Stone Age.
The term neolithic is used, especially in archaeology and anthropology, to designate a stage of cultural evolution or technological development characterized by the use of stone tools, the existence of settled villages largely
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. It began with the end of the last glacial period over 10,000 years ago and evolved into the Neolithic period; this change involved the gradual domestication of plants and animals and the formation of settled communities at various times and places. While Mesolithic cultures lasted in Europe until almost 3000 B.C., Neolithic communities developed in the Middle East between 9000 and 6000 B.C. Mesolithic cultures represent a wide variety of hunting, fishing, and food gathering techniques. This variety may be the result of adaptations to changed ecological conditions associated with the retreat of glaciers, the growth of forests in Europe and deserts in N Africa, and the disappearance of the large game of the Ice Age. Characteristic of the period were hunting and fishing settlements along rivers and on lake shores, where fish and mollusks were abundant. Microliths, the typical stone implements of the Mesolithic period, are smaller and more delicate than those of the late Paleolithic period. Pottery and the use of the bow developed, although their presence in Mesolithic cultures may only indicate contact with early Neolithic peoples. The Azilian culture, which was centered in the Pyrenees region but spread to Switzerland, Belgium, and Scotland, was one of the earliest representatives of Mesolithic culture in Europe. The Azilian was followed by the Tardenoisian culture, which covered much of Europe; most of these settlements are found on dunes or sandy areas. The Maglemosian, named for a site in Denmark, is found in the Baltic region and N England. It occurs in the middle of the Mesolithic period. It is there that hafted axes, an improvement over the Paleolithic hand axe, and bone tools are found. The Ertebolle culture, also named for a site in Denmark, spans most of the late Mesolithic. It is also known as the kitchen-midden culture for the large deposits of mollusk shells found around the settlements. Other late Mesolithic cultures are the Campignian and Asturian, both of which may have had Neolithic contacts. The Mesolithic period in other areas is represented by the Natufian in the Middle East, the Badarian and Gerzean in Egypt, and the Capsian in N Africa. The Natufian culture provides the earliest evidence of an evolution from a Mesolithic to a Neolithic way of life.

Bibliography

See study by J. G. D. Clark (1953, repr. 1970).

References in periodicals archive ?
One site dates back to the late Mesolithic period - 8,500 to 5,000 years ago.
antecedents and formative stages of cultures from Mesolithic period through Neolithic (9,000-6,000)in this part of the world which culminated into mature bronze age (300 BC) Indus valley civilization at a date which might be estimated about (2,500-2,400 BC)termed at the sites of Harappa and Moenjodaro as the "Indus valley civilization", said Dr.kakar.
Since the 1970s it has been believed humans came here around 10,000 years ago following discoveries on Mount Sandel in Co Derry which has been dated at 8,000 BC in the Mesolithic period.
Scientists have discovered that Caryl Parry Jones can trace her mother's ancestry back to maternal predecessors belonging to the haplogroup U, women who were among the first hunters to live in Europe and Northern Asia in the Mesolithic period after the Ice Age.
The history of Sigiriya dates back to over 5000 years, to the Mesolithic period. One of Sri Lanka's major attractions and a World Heritage Site, Sigiriya (Lion Rock) came into prominence in the 5th century AD, when King Kasyapa, afraid of reprisals led by his half-brother, Mogolan, chose to move the seat of power from Anuradhapura to this 500 m rock.
Now modern carbon dating techniques have revealed the site was used for burials as recently as 1,900BC, while other artefacts found, including ancient beads and pottery, may date back even further to the Mesolithic period - more than 10,000 years ago.
TEHRAN (FNA)- La Brana 1, the name used to baptize a 7,000-year-old individual from the Mesolithic Period whose remains were recovered at La Brana-Arintero site in Valdelugueros (Leon, Spain), had blue eyes and dark skin, new research revealed.
The site which was in use for some 4,000 years, from around 8,000BC (the early Mesolithic period) to around 4,000BC (the early Neolithic), were periodically re-cut - in all probability many times, which had made it impossible to find out whether or not they originally held timber posts or standing stones after being first dug 10,000 years ago.
"During the Mesolithic period the moors was a hunting ground described as the hunters' larder because they would encourage animals onto the land and shoot them with arrows and spears.
The finding of a Mesolithic human burial in the context of a relatively well preserved shell midden in which there are remains of prehistoric ceramics, even though all the datings obtained so far place the occupations of the sites in the Mesolithic period, pose interesting questions in at least four areas of discussion.
Trenches dug on the site off Dyserth Road on the outskirts of Rhyl reveal a small pit containing charcoal and several flint tools, probably from the Mesolithic period (Middle Stone Age), 8,000-4,000 years ago.
During the Mesolithic period at around 7,000 to 6,500BC was when the two land masses were last joined, and by the Neolithic period (from 4,000BC) they were quite separate.