was alive in the early 1900s, life expectancy was limited in large part by the fact that many infants and children never made it to adulthood, due to early deaths from infections and parasites, according to "Global Health and Aging", a 2015 report from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States' National Institute on Aging (NIA).
believed that the aging process resulted from the activity of "bad" bacteria that produce toxic substances in the intestinal tract.
A problem with these contributions is that most of them completely overlook authors such as Reclus, Metchnikoff
or Malatesta, inventing and dismissing a 'classical' tradition without really engaging with its original texts and historical praxes, and providing internalist readings of the history of ideas.
Vikhanski, "Immunity: How Elie Metchnikoff
changed the course of modern medicine," Chicago Review Press, 2016.
The book deftly illustrates both the valiant struggles and the tragedies of Metchnikoff
Immunity: How Elie Metchnikoff
Changed the Course of Modern Medicine is the amazing biography of of Elie Metchnikoff
(1845-1916), a Russian zoologist best known for his pioneer work in the biomedical science of immunology--the study of how living organisms' natural defenses against sickness work.
O termo disbiose foi citado por Metchnikoff
para descrever a presenca de bacterias patogenicas no intestino.
Intestinal microbiota, probiotics and mental health: from Metchnikoff
to modern advances: part III - convergence toward clinical trials.
Studies with some invertebrate blood cells, such as echinoderm coelomocytes, have an even longer history (Metchnikoff
, 1893), but generally have not been accorded the same dedication of resources.