scientific meetings of specialists in meteorology. In Russia the first and second meteorological congresses were held in St. Petersburg in January 1900 and January 1909. The third meteorological congress was held jointly with the first geophysical congress in May 1925 in Moscow; the fourth meteorological congress, that is, the All-Union Scientific Meteorological Conference, was held in June 1961, and the fifth meteorological congress, in June 1971 in Leningrad (the 40th and 50th anniversaries of the founding of the Hydrometeorological Service of the USSR).
International meteorological congresses are held for the purpose of international cooperation in meteorology. They grew out of the conference of meteorologists from a number of countries held in August 1872 in Leipzig, which considered the standardization of meteorological observational methods and their processing and publication, exchange of weather reports by telegraph, the introduction of the metric system into meteorology, and other questions. The first meteorological congress was held in Vienna in 1873, where it was decided to confirm (adopted in 1871). In 1947 the International Meteorological Organization became the World Meteorological Organization. Congresses of the World Meteorological Organization are held once every four years. The last, or sixth, congress of the World Meteorological Organization was held in 1971 in Geneva.
I. V. KRAVCHENKO