[1.] Hook SE, Wright ADG, McBride BW Methanogens
: Methane producers of the rumen and mitigation strategies.
They have placed estimates on the amount of methane produced globally based on the notion that only the oxygen-free portion of any wetland could harbor methanogens
. In just the last decade, ocean researchers have seen evidence of methane being produced in oxygenated water, and dubbed the phenomenon the "methane paradox," but no microorganism has been found to be responsible.
In ruminants, the major portion of the methanogenesis occurs in the the rumen, where feeds including fibrous plant structures are fermented primarily to short-chain volatile fatty acids, carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen, and methane by bacteria, protozoa, fungi and methanogens
. The methanogens
belong to a separate domain archaea in the kingdom of Euryarchaeota and are found in a wide range of other anaerobic environments (Liu and Whitman, 2008; Hook et al., 2010).
As shown in Figure 2(b), at least three genera of methylotrophic methanogens
The mcrA gene, which is involved in methane production in methanogens
, will be used in qPCR to examine the methanogen
quantity present in vertical depth profile lake column samples taken from approximately the deepest point of each lake.
mazei was dominant can be due to several factors based on the nature of the supplied substrate (microalgal biomass and sodium acetate): (1) addition of sodium acetate as a feedstock into the reactor creates conditions of elevated amount of acetate that can only be consumed by species of methanogen
with high growth rates and high acetate turnover rates, such as Methanosarcina mazei ; (2) slight fluctuations were observed in the pH during the AD  and Methanosarcina mazei have been previously reported to be able to withstand even higher pH fluctuations for a short period of time, as opposed to such species of Methanosarcina as Methanosarcina barkeri .
Spectrum of dominated bacteria is significantly enriched by genera Pelobacter, Pseudomonas, Arcobacter, Syntrophus, Syntrophobacter, Bacteroides, and Clostridium and two acetoclastic methanogens
(Methanosarcina and Methanothermobacter).
In the last phase, methanogenesis takes place which is carried out by methanogens
, belonging to Archaea.
may increase in number when low levels of sulfates are present in coastal areas, as they are capable of using [H.sub.2] and acetate (Fukui et al., 1997).
Pramanik P, Kim PJ (2012) Quantitative determination of 2-mercaptoethane sulphonate as biomarker for methanogens
in soil by high performance liquid chromatography using UV detector.
The idea is that, given the extra nitrogen, methanogens
sopping up excess hydrogen will form ammonia (composed of one nitrogen and three hydrogen atoms) instead of methane (one carbon and four hydrogens).
However, a by-product of the fermentation is the greenhouse gas, methane, which is produced by microbes called methanogens